Celtic Common Law in The Cradle of the Celts of Atlantic Europe. The “Terra de Trasancos” as a paradigm

 

ANDRÉ PENA GRAÑA, Ph.D.

Head of History and Archaeology, City Council of Narón, Galiza

 Dean Of The Galician Institute For Celtic Studies IGEC

XIV Comhdháil Idináisiúnta sa Léan Celiteach Maig Nuad, 2011

Being National Identity and Celtic Legacy consustantial concepts in Ireland in the language, history, legends and literature of Ireland, the Irish Government, to document, accorded to common opinion, the arrival of the Celts from Central Europe

I should like to warn the aucience that at the beginning of the Bronze Age [and, of course, since The Neolithic], all the languages ​​spoken in the Iberian Peninsula were Celtic (sic)  and Indo-European languages ​​ [Xaverio Ballester, M. Almagro, A. Pena, etc.]. The current Basque country was inhabited in the Iron Age by various peoples -all of them full Celtic speakers-: the Vardulos, the Caristios, the Autrigones, etc. Speakers of non-Indo-European languages; that is, speakers of non-native languages ​​of Europe, like the Basques, and the Iberians of the East of the Ebro, they arrived in the Iberian Peninsula in very recent, historical times, with the so-called Urn Fields.

in the V century BC, funded a genetic study led by Dan Bradley and Brian McEvoy (2004). But comparing DNA samples from 200 volunteers from various parts of Ireland with a genetic database of 8500 individuals across Europe, Bradley and McEvoy, found something different, confirming McEvoy:

“The primary genetic legacy of Ireland, seems to have come from people from Spain and Portugal after the last Ice Age”, in fact a genetic legacy of Mesolithic and Neolithic of Gallaecia and the Atlantic coast of Iberia. “We have” – McEvoy said-, “a much older genetic legacy”

A genetic legacy of Mesolithic and Neolithic of Gallaecia and the Atlantic coast of Iberia.

However the study o TCD, of Bradley and McEvoy, in fact redefined the concept of Celtica, when combined in a map of Europe Genetic profiles [haplotipe R1b[Y-DNE]  noted in the Atlantic Cultural Area corresponding to Portugal, Gallaecia, Cantabria, Basque Country, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Britain.

If the Ice Age glacial advance forced the Paleolithic Europeans to seek shelter from climate in places such as the Atlantic Lands End of NW Iberia, Finisterre, the subsequent climate change and ice retreat allowed the people settled for such a long period in the Atlantic coast of Iberia to return to Europe […] [ and also to sub-Saharan Africa].

Northern hemisphere glaciation during the last ice ages. The accumulation of 3 to 4 km thick ice sheets caused a sea level lowering of about 120 m. Also, the Alps and the Himalayas were covered by glaciers. Winter sea ice coverage was much more limited in the south. [Wikipedia]. Hannes Grobe/AWI – own work – redrawn, supplemented and modified grafic from John S. Schlee (2000) Our changing continent, United States Geological Survey., CC BY 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=973487

As our rich mythology explains, this people probably left by sea from current Galiza, Nation of Breogão [“Brian”], first toward Ireland

 

-as referring the legends the arrival in Ireland of the Gaels from Brigantia (A Coruña)-

At the beginning of the Bronze Age [and, of course, since The Neolithic], all the languages ​​spoken in the Iberian Peninsula were Celtic (sic)  and Indo-European languages ​​ [Xaverio Ballester, M. Almagro, A. Pena, etc.].

LUGOVES

At the beginning of the Bronze Age [and, of course, since the Neolithic], all the languages ​​spoken in the Iberian Peninsula were Celtic (sic) and Indo-European languages ​​ [Xaverio Ballester, M. Almagro, A. Pena, etc.].  The present Basque Country was inhabited in the Iron Age by several trebas or toudos [generally called by the Romans civitates/populi] -all of them Celtic-speaking: the Vardulos, the Caristios, the Autrigones, etc.
The speakers of non-Indo-European languages -that is, speakers of languages not originating in Europe, such as the Basques and the Iberians from the east of the Ebro-, arrived, my dear J. T. Koch,  in the Iberian Peninsula in very recent historical times (9th and 6th centuries B.C.) with the so-called Urn Fields. Promtema Trasancos.  Location in keys of Physical and Sacred Celtic Geography, in the two ‘Puntas de España’ [Cabo San Vicente and Cabo Prior], “Extremes of Spain”, of the concept Trasancos/Tartessos/Tartares/Tartaro, on the map of the [Mesolithic and Neolithic] expansion of the Celts and the Celtic Common Law, from its cradle [in PCP]: Galtia or Kaltia “Gallaecia, Galiza”, through the interior of the Iberian Peninsula, and through insular and continental Europe [we do not include here the expansion through North Africa].  Details.  Above, right :  Brief clause in the small slate disc of Santa Comba, Covas, Ferrol , possibly in singular dative, Reve Trasanciuge [probably better lectio, “reading”, than  Trasanciange (Trasancian+i+ca) Reve [Theme in “a”,  probably an epithet for the MaterRe-ba [b/v] “Raising Moon, Ascension of the Moon”];  the small slate tile found by me in Covas contains, without a doubt, the name of, and of the  Trasancos or Tartares. The name of our Terra “Land,” or Treba, is  [ In PCP Key, Paleolithic Continuity Paradigm] very old and invariable in the so-called Indo-European languages .  This voice is not a hydronym – tartaric acid does not hydrate the skin -.  Probably the voice of the  Common Ancient Celtic , allusive to the ‘rozas’ slashes and burns of the mountain to cultivate, of our first farmers.  For interpretatio of the Sacred Celtic Geography, it surely would pass to Tartares [reduplication of *trs, cf, a.irl. tart, “sede”], and in Sacred Celtic and Indo-European Geography [Homer, Hesiod, Estesicorus] as the location of Tartarus in partes extremas Gallaeciae e en Xeografía Sagrada celta e indoeuropea [Homero, Hesíodo, Estesícoro]: ‘Monasterio [S. Martiño] de Iuvia vocitato Tartares” ;  possibly originating our modern place-names “Inferniño” or “Lamas do Inferno” literally “Little Hell” or “Hell Swamps”. Trasancos: psb. stem *Ters+ ancos [ being -ancos suffix of the contiguous counties, trebas/toudos,  of , and of the Nem-ancos; *Prut-encos [= Britanicos?], Bes-ancos; Tras-ancos; Lapati-ancos, etc.,] *ters-, stem of Trasancos, *Ters+ an+i+cos pssbl.  possibly, “those who burn the bush to cultivate”  [Pokorny 1078 (1870/47)] *ters-, idg., V., Sb.: nhd. trocknen, verdorren, dürsten, Durst; ne. dry (V.), thirst (N.); RB.: ind., iran., arm., gr., alb., ital., kelt., germ.; Hw.: s. *tr̥su-, *tr̥si̯ā, *tr̥sto-; W.: gr. τέρσεσθαι (térsesthai), V., trocken werden; W.: gr. τερσαίνειν (tersaínein), V., trocken machen, abtrocknen, abwischen; W.: s. gr. τρασιά (trasiá), tarsim̥ (tarsiá), F., Darre, Flechtwerk zum Trocknen; W.: s. lat. terra, F., Land, Erdboden; vgl. ae. fel-terr-e, sw. F. (n), Erdgalle (eine Pflanze); W.: lat. torrēre, V., dörren, braten, backen, rösten, sengen, versengen, entzünden; […] germ. *þarzjan , sw. V., trocknen, dörren; an. þerr-a, sw. V. (1), trocknen; W.: germ. *þarzjan, sw. V., trocknen, dörren; a.irl  Tart “thirst”.  Down, left. Epigraph of Kaltia’s (galician) Nerio, Tasionos, who died among the conios, in Tartessos, where when burning the mountain to cultivate, the waters eroded the land and were left without ports, having to be transferred the population to the island of Cadiz -[reinforcing, although not necessarily, this intrinsic idea of burning tart, ters, and derivatives]. // Bottom left.  Our Nerio Tasiono was undoubtedly in Tartessos considering himself part of the family,  feeling as if they were in their own home, for as Strabo tells us in 3,3,5: “Around the Promontory Nerio [Cape Finisterre] live the Celtics WHO ARE RELATED [SINGENEIS] TO THOSE WHO LIVE ON THE ORILLS OF THE GUADIANA RIVER”;  dispelling doubts of priority  [ whatever, if you want a ride, take a ride, but prevent yourself from Culturocastrator taking you for a ride, once again making us confuse a cat with a hare, when he wants us to buy a pig in a poke -], the prelatic principle that makes those of Vilavelha “Old Village” precede those of Vilanova “New Village” , also operates for the Turdulli , “Thrushes” [ie. *trusdo, ir. truid, “tordo” , [e nos pardillos galaicos], they call themselves Turdulli ‘Veteres’, “The Old Ones”, [Mela 3, 1] id est  “Old Thrushes” , and when Strabo tells us in 3, 2, 12 :  “The country of Tartessis, which today is inhabited by the Turdulli“, he speaks, of course, of the newcomers from Gallaecia

Language extended, as expected, since not all emigrants would be mute, in the long march to Atlantic Europe insular and continental, and to the north of Africa – the Amazig Berbers of the Atlas, p. e. -, giving rise to the pleiade of common place names, river names, deity names… etc., absolutely CeltsJ. J. Moralejo]

Bri_e_BrigaFont wikipedia.  Old place names containing the Celtic elements -briga and -bris < –brigs   ‘hill, hillfort’ in the Iberian peninsula, transmitted by Roman and Greek geographers and historian and local Latin inscriptions; together with modern place names derived from the same elements. cf Sub uocabulo List_of_Celtic_place_names_in_Galicia

They spoke an Atlantic Iberian ancient Q-Celtic language

TA-TE-RTA-R-O. Deer bone founded in O Bancal, A Corunna, Galice, at the begining of the XIX Century. Cf BOUVIER, Michel (2003), “L’An de L’Ecriture”. Indo-European language on stag bone, Bancal de la Coruna, Spain, ca. 4000-3800BC, 1 bone, 2,2×7,1×1,2 cm, line with 6 [West] Iberian signs […] [lectio de André Pena bustrofedon ta-te-r- ta-r-o TATERTARO [= Tártaro] -bástulo-turdetano- ], paper label pasted on the back with 3 lines of cursive script: […] [Astas grabadas con texto. Bancal de la Coruña, Hallaisgode 1916 nº 104″. Contex: Similar bones are MSS5237/1 and 5238./ Provenance: 1. Found Bancal de la Coruna, Hallaisgode, Stain, nº 104 (1916), 2. Private collection, Spain, n 104 (1916); 3 Michel Bouvier, Paris. Cat. L’Art de L’Ecriture, 2003. 4. Commentary: Hans Jensen, in “Sign, symbol and script”, pp. 37-39, dates de signs from Dolmen d’Alvão in Portugal to about 4000 BC being attached to Iberian writing.

-as described by authors as Eulogio Losada Badia

WAS J. T. COCH THE FIRST TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE TARTESIAN IS A CELTIC LANGUAGE?

“Las escrituras celtohispánicas” (Eulogio Losada Badia, Universités de Lyon et Paris)

WAS J. T. COCH THE FIRST TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE TARTESIAN IS A CELTIC LANGUAGE? Well, not exactly. We must remember -without diminishing the glory that belongs to J. T. Koch- that some years earlier -while Koch undoubtedly inadvertently ignores this circumstance- Eulogio Losada Badía had shown, that the Tartessian was an alphabet built on purpose for a Celtic language. Despite the fact that the book of the UBO, University of Western Brittany, containing his article – the acts book of the first congress dedicated to the Celts and the Iberian Peninsula ,  Les Celtes et la Péninsule Ibérique , in France, Brittany -, it was distributed to all the libraries of the universities of the so-called Celtic Countries.

Addeccet
It should be remembered that in 1997 Eulogio Losada Badía had demonstrated that the Tartessian alphabet, or western Iberian, long before Greek and Phoenician, and related in typology to Egyptian and Aegean linear writing, was an alphabet created to note a Celtic language. – ignoring, no doubt by mistake, J. T. Koch, this circumstance, although the book of the UBO, University of Western Brittany, containing the proceedings of the first and only congress held in France (in Britain) dedicated to the Celts of the Iberian Peninsula: Les Celtes et la Péninsule Ibérique, Actes du Colloque international  (Brest, 6-7-8 novembre 1997),  was widely distributed in university libraries in Celtic countries-.
[…]  Gómez Moreno,” says Eulogio Losada Badía, “years after having indicated “It has characters of maximum probability […] to admit that the Iberian alphabets were born in Andalusia, as a consequence of the Tartessian civilization, in a remote time, but inaccurate at present […]….] […] because its graphic type places it close to the Cretans and Cypriots and before the Phoenicians [Miscellaneous, 28]” – dated the Tartessian alphabet to the end of the second millennium BC, at least.
[And, in turn, Eulogio Losada Badía, analyzing] “the very nature of the language for which the first Iberian writing was created by the Tartessian area” [and, among other things, long to enumerate, developed by him along 45 dense pages (201, 246)], “The bivalent essence of the graphemes with which the dental and guttural occlusives or veils are transcribed, in the Iberian languages”, [had determined with solid and documented argumentation, the Celtic nature of the language of the Hispanic Atlantic]:

“Confirming the coherence of our thesis on the Celtic origins of the system, which the Iberian alphabet seems to reveal to us,  the phonetic arguments invoked in the present work, render celtic paternity at least highly reliable “.

E. Losada Badía “Las Escrituras Celtohispanicas”  1999: 246
And this ancient origin of the Hispanic alphabet – undoubtedly the first alphabet created in Europe, to annotate the Celtic language [ancient common Celtic] -, excludes precisely -let us say now, coming to light- to maintain that the original population of Ireland was not Celtic; and excludes to maintain — as by personal comparative needs hold some, without any proof-, that the Celtic language arrived at a later moment. / Ending Addecet  

 Xaverio Ballester cf. in 2012 , and cf.   Lenguas anindoeuropeas de hispania ¿antiguas o recientes? 2018  or

  J. J Moralejo 

Cf.: “Gallaecia, Célticos e Onomástica Os Celtas da Europa Atlântica. Atas do III Congreso Internacional Sobre A Cultura Celta. Narón, 15, 16, 17 abril de 2011,  43-58 

 , who analyzed river names, place names, deity names and other forms, and carried with them a social, political  and religious organizational structure.

They then migrated to Britain, moving into the Continent through the ice-free English Channel -speaking a Common Atlantic Ancient Celtic? […] [Ancient Celtic, yes, also cradle of the Indo-European], but this is another story …-.

ex J. T. Koch map “A Case for Tartessian as a Celtic Language

 

This was the ‘Great Migration of the Celts’ as our present knowledge in population  dynamics demonstrates.

 

Bantam Press ( Sept., 12, 2006) “Instead he reveals that almost the entire mitochondrial DNA (DNA passed down from the females genes) in England is from the Ibero-Celtic peoples that arrived in Britain 10 000 years ago and is fundamentally the same as that in Scotland, Wales and Ireland.’Even if the entire population of Jutes, Angles and Saxons arrived in Britain, that that could have exterminated all of the Britons, , with their centuries of experience of Roman military tactics. Even if they had managed to kill all the men they would not have managed to kill all the women’And hence how the DNA proves this. The overwhelming majority of the matrilineal descent of the people in England has stayed constant for ten thousand years, from the original inhabitants of Britain , who were there 8000 years before the Anglo-Saxons settled in what is now England.As Sykes clearly states ‘ ‘On our maternal side almost all of us are Celts”The matrilineal history of the Isles is both ancient and continuous. I see no reason at all from the results why many of our maternal lineages should not go right through the millennia to the very first Paleolithic and Mesolithic settlers who reached our islands around 10 000 years ago. The average settlement dates of 8000 years ago fits in with this.‘” in Gary’s review of Blood of the Isles 

I wish to warn readers of this post on superposition of the newly arrived peoples – in the  so called Bask Country: the Old Celtic lands of the Vardulos, Caristios, Autrigones, etc. -, in a fully historical epoch [VI-IV BC], speaking an AnIndo-European language, i.e. alien to Europe Basque language, Cf., ut supra,  Xaverio Ballester: cf.   Lenguas anindoeuropeas de hispania ¿antiguas o recientes? 2018

This long journey across land and sea also signaled the dissemination beyond the Galizan epicentre

Burgarios. Cup and rings.

of such elements as the cup and rings

Often a large slab of stone is taken away from the table of offerings of the Final Neolithic, with “cup and rings” petrogyphs for building the “head stone” of a dolmen. Then, in the hole left by the extracted stone, it is reproduced, again, with care, the same motives previously represented. What does that mean? That those motives allow [to the soul], in some way, the communication between this world and *OMORICA “[the Other World] under the sea”.

and labyrinth petroglyphs

Sealing Omorika

*OMORICA is The Beyond under the land and under the sea. Fish are therefore, stricto sensu, inhabitants of * Omorica, the Beyond, the Other World, the place where  the Mourindade, “elfic beings of Omorica ” lives, a paradise reserved for the souls of the dead, where no living being can acces. For this reason it is necessary to seal the access doors connecting world of the living and the dead. The labyrinth –As our promtema shows-, from the Neolithic to the present day, the function of sealing the entrance. Thus, the Nordic fishermen of today build with ephemeral maze stones, walking inside them, thinking that it helps to navigate safely: Cf http://www.labyrinthos.net/Gotland%20Trojaborgs.pdf

 

The legends of the arrival across the ocean from Brigantia of the Gaels to Ireland,

[Addenda

“Clíodhna NÍ LIONÁIN “LEABHAR GABHÁLA ÉRENN – THE CONSTRUCTION UTILISATION, AND APROPIATION OF AN IRISH ORIGIN MYTH”. [ XIV Comhdháil Idirnáisiúnta sa Leann Ceilteach. Maigh Nuad (2011): “The Irish origin myths as spoused by the Leabhar Gabhála Érenn speak of an illustrious past, with the Gaels coming from afar to settle in Ireland where they established a long and noble royal lineage. Some have said that it is relatively inevitable that an island people would look to overseas migration to explain the peopling of their land. However, while origin myths may contain long-forgotten memories of a distant past, and the allusions to sea-links connecting Ireland and Iberia are indeed tantalising, the origin myths recorded in early Irish literature are more revealing of the contemporary culture of those who recorded and created this mythical narrative, These origin myths have subsequently been used, manipulated and appropiated not only in Ireland, but also in Iberia and the British Isles, Showing how much narratives can be utilised in both the definition and promotion of nationhood and independents sovereignty, but also in the assertion of dominion and control over a colonised people. The development, use, appropiation and manipulation of the LGE narrative reveals the may layers of complicated negotiation of meaning behind the formation and transmission of cultrual objects, in this case legends.” 
Excuse me, dear Clíodhna, but in conspectu Sancta Chronologia, I would say that the thing is rather the other way around. Perhaps it would be advisable not to lose respect for the founding myths!  Cf. here ex
  A. Pena & A. Erias. It would be convenient an explanation .

The history of the Gaels tells that Íth, having contemplated Ireland from the top of the tower  of Breogán , sailed to the island to confirm his discovery. Upon arrival, he was well received by the natives – a supernatural race, the Túatha de Danann-; but something did not go well .

In Irish and Scottish Medieval myth, Goídel Glas (Latinised as Gathelus) is the creator of the Goidelic languages and the eponymous ancestor of the Gaels

Some nobles, apprehensive of his true intentions, attacked him with treachery, and killed him. Returning his badly wounded companions, to Brigantia with his corpse.

Departure of the Milesians from the Tower of Brigantia. Camilo Díaz Baliño. Museo de Bellas Artes de A Coruña. “We have already spoken blandly about these relatively modern legends” – says something misguided, H. D’Arbois de Juvainville – “whose origin has nothing popular but come from a false erudition. We shall now refer to the ancient account where the Celtic race is said to have left the land of the dead to settle in the land which it still occupies today. The oldest version of this legend dates back to the 11th century, and was preserved by the  ‘Book of Conquests’. There we see that a certain Bregóm [Breogán], son, or grandfather of Milé, built a tower in Spain […] [Gallaecia, Northwest of Spain] or in the country of the dead. This tower was called the Tower of Bre [o] gón, and constitutes a second edition of the tower of Conann that had sung Eochaid ua Flainn in the Xth century, and in whose assent the descendants of the mythical Nemed, who had gone to fight against the god of the dead, began by being winners to end up perishing in number of 60,000. It is similar to the tower that Kronos, god of the dead; occupies the Island of the Blessed, which had been sung by Pindar in the fifth century BC Breogán had a son named Íth, who contemplated the horizon from the top of the paternal fortress during a beautiful winter night, sighted in the distance the coast of Ireland. From the eleventh century the Irish scholars had converted Bre [o] gón into a city of Spain, the old Brigantia, today Braganza [- says D’Arbois, wrongly, because Brigantia and its tower correspond today, no doubt, to Corogne, Galice, and its Brigantia Tower or Tower of Hercules]. It is clear that to see Ireland from there, it is necessary to have very good eyesight.

And so, to avenge his death, The Milesians, the sons of his uncle, Míl Espáine, left Brigantia to conquer the island. “It was a Thursday – narrates Rolleston following the Book Of The Invasions Of Ireland- , the first of May, and the seventeenth day of the moon, when the sons of Miled arrived in IrelandThe Milesians of Brigantia were commanded by thirty-six captains  […] [all of them, as is mandatory, nobles], each one with his own boat, with his own family and with his own vassals.

When [the Gaels Milesians] came to Ireland, they marched on Tara, the royal seat, to reclaim the kingdom. On the way they were greeted by three women: Bamba, Flodla and Eriú, queens and wives of the three kings of Ireland. Each woman greeted the Milesians and told them that her name was the name by which the country was known. And they asked him to keep it that way, if they were victorious in battle. One of the Milesians Amergin promised them that this would be done. Both sides agreed that the Milesios had to re-embark on their ships and fend off a distance of nine waves from the coast, so that the Thuata Danann could have an opportunity to mobilize their forces. But when the Milesians were “beyond nine waves,” the Druids of the Túatha Give Danann, conjured up a fierce storm.

It is said that during the voyage two members of the expedition perished. Donn, one of the sons of Miled, after climbing the main mast to see the coast of Ireland, fell into the sea and drowned.

La rencontre des Gaëls [= Galegos, de Brigantia] avec les trois reines d´Irlande est un rituel de prise de posesión d´une terre” […] “Dans leur marche vers Tara, les Gaëls rencontrent les trois déesses éponymes du pays: Bamba, Fotla y Eriu Seule Eriu leur souhaite bonnes possession de leurs nouvelle terre. En échange de sa protection, elle leur demande cependant un engagement: que l´île porte désormais son nom. Amorgen y consent; cést pourquoi l´Irlande s´appelle, depuis ce jour-lá, Erin, du nom de la déesse Eriu. “Les fils de Mil s´entretinrent avec Bamba à Siab Mis. Elle leur dit: “Si c’est pour vous emparer de l´Irlande que vous êtes venus, vous n´êtes pas venus sous un bon signe”. “C´est par nécessite”, dit Amorgen au genou blanc, le poète. “Faites-moi un don”, dit-elle. “Quel don?” dirent-ils. “Que mon nom soit donné à cette île” dit-elle. “Quel est ton nom?, dirent-ils. “Bamba“, dit-elle. “Que ce soit un nom de l´île”, dit Amorgen. Ils s´entretinrent avec Fotla à Eblinne. Elle leur parla de la même manière et elle désira que son nom fût donné à l´île. Amorgen lui dit: ” Que Fotla soit un nom de l´île”. Ils s´entretinrent avec Eriu à Uisnech. Elle leur dit: “ô guerriers, soyez les bienvenus. Il y a longtemps que les prophètes ont prédit votre venue. Cette île sera vôtre à tout jamais. Et à lest du monde il n`y aura pas d´île meilleure. Nulle race n´y sera plus nombreuse que la votre”. “C´est bien”, dit Amorgen, “la prophétie est bonne”. “Faites-moi un don, ô fils de Mil et enfants de Bregon“, dit-elle, “que nom soit donné á cette île”. “Que ce soit son principal nom”, dit Amorgen” Avant de prendre possession de l´île, il faut livrer bataille. Les Gaëls sont vainqueurs et le Tuatha s´inclinent, non sans avoir durement négocie leur retraite. Le pays sera désormais équitablement divisé, non point sur le mode humain, mais sur le mode mythique: Les Gaëls occuperont le pays en surface, et les Tuatha se répartiront le “Sidh”, c’est à -dire le monde du Dessus: les tumuli, cairns, lacs et autres lieux magiques dont est truffées l’Irlande. C´est ainsi que l´Irlande fut partagée entre les dieux et les hommes” Marcel BRASSEUR, kind epistolary communication. In this portentous plot, Skena, the wife of the poet Amergin, must perish, because the gael milesian, must be free, to stage her marriage with the Mother Goddess and take possession of the Island .   In this portentous plot, Skena, the wife of the Gael Milesian poet Amergin, must perish, because he must be free, to stage her marriage with the Mother Goddess and take possession of the Island Cf A. Pena  Treba y Territorium (2004: 181-2)  

The other victim was Skena, the wife of the poet Amergin, the son of Miled, who also perished on the sea. The Milesians buried her when they took land, and called the place Inverskena, ‘behind her’; this was the old name of the Kennare River in County Kerry .  Cf. “The Comming of the Milesians” T. W. Rolleston, Myths Of The Celtic Race.  /End Addenda

 

The Tower of Nennius. In Nennius’s account, Mile’s three sons (Don, Breoga and Amergin), after arriving with thirty boats each, and in each boat thirty men and their wives, remained in a year in Ireland, and then he saw, in the middle of the sea, a glass tower, and in it, something like men, almost homines, [the dead], of which they did not get an answer. After a year of preparations they set out to attack the Tower, one ship wrecked with thirty men and thirty women, the rest reach the shore that surrounds the Tower, then the sea rises above them, swallowing them. The population of Ireland descends from the castaways of the boat that did not reach the tower.

And the foundation in memory of the abandoned home [Galtia / Kaltia it is the documented  name of Galice in Bronze Age], by the Gall-aecian Amergin, of Dun na Gall, Donegal, the dun, “briga”, “hillfort” or castro of the Gall-aecos.

A common political order and organization was also spread out, superimposed on the local differences, establishing a joint “public and private common law” consuetam ratione ruling   the treba or toudo [túath]

A common political order and organization was also spread out, superimposed on the local differences, establishing a joint “public and private common law” consuetam ratione ruling the treba or toudo [túath] – [CENTER: Paleo Christian stela of the Provincial Archaeological Museum of Oviedo. Ca. 350 d C, found in 1932 by Venancio Pérez y Pérez, “Venancio da Corredoira”, in the place of Corredoira, Vegadeo Gallaecia, Conventus Asturum.Niger, son of Clutoso, of Cariaca [of the House] of the prince of the Albions of sixty-five years. Here it is ]-.

and ruling the briga, “hill fort”, dun, castellum, “castro”,

A common political order and organization was also spread out, superimposed on the local differences, establishing a joint “public and private common law” consuetam ratione ruling  the treba or toudo [túath] and ruling the briga, “hill fort”, dun, castellum, “castro”,

a common military organization  [reges, ari, ambactos, ikurigos, coroneros, etc.],

a common military organization [reges, ari, ambactos, ikurigos, acadrolios, etc.], http://catedra.pontedeume.es/21/catedra2104.pdf

a common calendar  of  annual festivities, etc.,

a common calendar of annual festivities

making the Celtic Civilization the true catalyzer for the creation of Europe.

The Celtic Civilization the true catalyzer for the creation of Europe

Addecet
The Celts Otto Hermann Frey, Venceslas Kruta.  In 1991 we published (Concello de Narón Ed.) the  first volume of the Historia de Narón. 24 years – and an obscurantist abyss – mediates between:
A) the year 1991 when, opening in the Palazzo Grassi of the Grand Canal in Venice -24 March to 8 December- the exhibition I Celti, la Prima Europa, “The Celts, The First Europe”, one of the curators, Venceslás Kruta, paid deep tribute to “the Celtic Civilization, First Constructor of Europe”
B) and the year 2015, when a curator, opening on September 24, the great exhibition at the British Museum, Celts, Art and Identity [open until January 31, 2016], explained to the BBC: “The Celts do not exist , they are a construct of the archaeologists, a brand image, like Coca-Cola, or like Volkswagen”.
In the History of Narón I, II, III, studying in the long duration the genesis and the evolution of a Galician region: the Terra of Trasancos, we completed the idea and old project of the disappeared Seminary of Galician Studies, demonstrating, in the cradle of system, on the one hand, Galiza’s fully Celtic-Atlantic character – something by then denied by our University – and, on the other, that the Celts, of Insular and Continental Europe, far from being an invented brand image, share -all of them-, a CommonInstitutional Reality -effective like the Wolkswagen engines-and solid like the bottles of Coca-Cola-:  The Celtic Common Law/ End Addecet.

 

POLITICAL ORGANIZATION

 

I would like to warn the audience that, at least in 1991, these papers sounded like something new. Perhaps not so much at this stage when scientists from different fields are supporting this view.

Before, during and after Roman rule, the Northwest of Atlantic Iberia, Gallaecia, experienced a Celtic and Indoeuropean territorial organization, which still stayed alive until very late in the Middle Ages.

Separated in Gallaeciae from the adfines, “neighbors”, by  termini, or mounds, with a Stele,  slab or vertical stone column, that often serves as a tombstone and as a landmark and usually has a commemorative inscription or relief design  like this chalcolithic one with a statue of the eponymous founder, in which they wrote in the Lower Empire: “Here lies [my ancestor] Celtiato, Lateron Son”,

LATRON/VS . CELTI/ATI. FILIVS/ HIC SITUS EST. Here lies [my ancestor] Celtiato, Lateron Son-1º LATRONUS “Struggle, Brave, Determined, Willing (for battle)” [surely of the [old Irish] OIr. Lathar involving the Idea of ​​”disposition [for combat],” n. o-stem <* lāθ (e) r <* lāθ (e) rom: acc. sg., dat. sg. lathur [lathar] (McCone, 2011) – 2nd [this second option yields before the previous] lat. Later-onus “Who [by the security that he inspires] walks beside the [noble or the king]”. [The strenuous Látronus, has nothing to do with  a “friend of what belongs or corresponds to another”, -as with little success, by ignoring the institutional importance of the plot, Francisco Fariña Busto maintains-, CELTIATI FILIVS, “Son of Celtiato”; HIC SITUS EST “Here lies”. No doubt a Galician nobleman whose family held, since immemorial time, the continuous secular possession of the túath, toudo or treba [“Noble House”] of the Quarquerni, group belonging to the Galaicos Brácaros, demarcated by this menhir-statue, he was the one who order to engrave this epigraph, in the Lower Empire, possibly in fourth century AD- on the old calcolithic founding tomb, ca . 3400 BCE. He wanted to vindicate, in writing, the affiliation of the tumuli [“mámoa”] to the eponymous founder of his prosapia [Pena Granha] and that this one was son, in its turn, of the eponymous founder of all the trebas or toudos [Thúatha] of [Ka/Ga] Kaltia/Galtia -or with an epentetic “i”-,  Galitia > Galiza “Galice”.

or landmarks called in our Celtic language carneiros,  coiras (Old Irish Cora; Corn. Cored, cf. VENDRYÈS sub vocabulo cora 1987), etc.

 

Marco do Vento Winds Landmark. Cerdedo. Calros Solla

The Political Territorial Organization of Gallaeciae described in the ancient sources with Celtic ethnonyms, “names of tribes”, knew pre-roman names of Treba and Toudo [Thúat][1].

Both words define a common institutional system, a “Celtic princedom” – more appropriate than the term “Celtic chiefdom”. (ARNOLD & GIBSON, 1995)

Since the dawn of the Bronze Age Celtic Europe is a mosaic of identical autonomous political territories we commonly call tribes and Romans called ciuitates / populi. Sharing a common structure, these tribes – as is Gallaecia–  are known either in Europe (Pena 1992; Karl 2002) with words of domestic sovereignty: TREBA [TRIFU, TRIBE, etc.] and TOUDO [ TÚATH, TEUTA, TOUTO, etc.] with a term alluding to the people, state or nation.

As in Ireland (MacConeGibsonByrne), Wales (Hubert, 436-437);  Scotland (A. Dogshon), continental Europe (Wells;  Halselgrove, 12-29),  and the Nordic countries  (Kristiansen, 241-280),the ancient Gallaecia configured itself as a succession of political territories that probably emerged at an early stage. In Treba y Territorium (USC 2004), in a long term study (1987-2010) of a Galician shrine  in Narón (Northwest Galiza), this author notes a Neolithic origin of the Treba.

As in Ireland (MacCone 1990; Gibson 1995; Byrne 1971), Wales (Hubert [2]), Scotland (A. Dogshon), continental Europe (Wens; Halselgrove) and the Nordic countries (Kristiansen), the ancient Gallaecia configured itself as a succession of political territories that probably emerged at an early stage. In Treba y Territorium (USC 2004), in a long term study (1987-2010) of a Galician shrine in Narão (Northwest Galiza), this author notes a Neolithic origin of the  Treba [3].

 

In 1941 Marc Bloch noted rural areas in primitive Europe ruled by hereditary princes and a common, well-developed institutional framework.

He later identified common Indo-European Celtic and Germanic institutions, with their service obligations and hierarchical relationship often called feudal, tracking them as far back as the second millennium BCE. 

“There is sufficient evidence”- said Stuart Piggot “to suggest that the model of society demanded by Bloch may in fact be very archaic and characteristic of barbarian Europe” (Piggot 1965: 259-260)

The voice Mouros, designates some galician mythical beings – as the elves described by Tolkien. The Mouros are imortal beings, of extraordinary beauty and look, enhanced by beautiful jewels and clothes. their skin is very clear, their hair is blond and it shines gold like. They enhance their extraordinary beauty with beautiful jewels and great clothes. In its subterranean habitat – Mouro, probl. from the “Old Common Q-Celtic”, means “The inhabitant of *OMORICA, the under-sea world”, Following Koch: cf. tartessian *omuŕika*[ [J.16.2] < *u(p)omorikā ‘the under-sea world’, cf. Gaulish Aremorica ‘the land by the sea’, Welsh arfor-dir ‘coast’. In J. T. KOCH ActPal X = PalHisp 9, 343]], almost all its tools are made of gold. Their animals, dogs of supernatural colors, horses and cattle, are also of great beauty and looking. OMouro and AMoura can adopt any form, human or animal, at will. The voice Mouro and Moura, applied to our mythical beings, has nothing to do with that of the “Moors (North-Africans)”, nor can it be translated as “blacks”.

As Harold Mytum says (1992:141) “The fundamental buiding block of the political system in Early Christian Ireland was the Túath, led by the king, “rí” or “rí túaithe”.

Valpaços

In the epigraphic record [Pena (1991; 1992)] of the Northwest’s voice  TREB [A] also appears in Gallaecia Bracarense in a cruciform landmark terminalis pointing border of Obili [anci?]: TERM [MINVS] TREB [AE] OBILI [ANCORUM? [Sanfins; Valpaços, Chaves (Portugal)].  Hubert assinala que Gales conheceu a palavra TREBA para o Teritorio político, dantes de que quatro reinos se repartissem o país subdividido em distritos chamados Can/tref. Cf. compar. as vozes CONTREBIA (Celtiberia) e CONTRIBUTI [Interim Oscenses et Calagurritani qui erant cum oscensibus contributi –Caesar BC 1, 60-], expressando confederación; as vozes ATREBATES e ATTRIBUTI expressando a anexión por conquista de umas tribos a outra à que pagam tributo censum [lat. AT/TRIBUERE; assim: insulae Rhodis attributae = “ilhas anexadas a Rodas”).  Our Political Territory was named in Galician and Lusitanian language TREBA. The voice, from the domestic sovereignty, means “House,” Shire”,” Political Territory “. Pliny mentions the Arroni or Arrotrebae, this is Arros or County Arrós. And the voice Treba is mentioned twice -among the epithets undoubtedly intensify the role of Matres – in an inscription found in Cabeço das Fraguas, Portugal, written in late Vulgar Latin, infiltrated with the substrate of the Lusitanian-Galician language. Towards the end of the registration TREBARUNE [psb. determinant “of the Treb” + determinated “The Moon in Ascension” (r / l) “Luna”, and, again REVE TR[EBARUNA?] – psb. cf. Old Irish Ré, “moon” ; Re-ve “The moon in ascension” lán na ré The full moon’- ], and to the beginning of the inscription in TREBO-PALA, referring no doubt this time to an “altar stone”, meaning the ancient voice pala “stone”, (Old Irish fail) of the tribe in terms of sacred geography. The altar stone also appears as TOUDO-PALA (* TEWTO-PALA, “Túatha Fáil” ) or CROUGIN-TOUDADIGO [CROUGIN/Cruachan “Stone altar” TOUDADIGO (as Teutates), “of the Túath”].

There is considerable dispute as to whether the ‘túath’ represented a tribe […][4]  there was no ethnic, linguistic or cultural division, but it did, represent a political unit, and one on a larger scale than that of the kin-group. Belonging to a túath –as in Galiza today- was an important concept in Early Christian Ireland, and in that sense the túath can be consider a tribe. the Origins of Early Christian Ireland. 1992: 141]

Territorial organization, which still stayed alive until very late in the Middle Ages

In Galicia, as in Ireland, a king was the head of the Trebas, until the early thirteenth century, when after the King of Galicia, Petrus Arteiru confirms as “Rex of [the Terra of] Melide” the chronological clauses of a diploma [5].

However, in the Latin Gallaecia epigraphic record, the rejection of Rome towards this institution, are not recorded kings (heretics), but princes:

Right. Paleo-Christian stele of the Provincial Archaeological Museum of Oviedo. AC. 350 after Christ, found in 1932 by Venancio Pérez and Pérez (Venancio da Corredoira, in the place of Corredoira, Vegadeo. “Niger, son of Clutoso, of [hillfort] Cariaca prince [or, more likely,” of (the House) of the prince] of the ALBIONES of sixty-five years. He rest here

“Nicer Clutosi Principis Albionum”; “Caisaros Ceccig(um) Pr(inceps?) Arcailo(rum)”; “(Ve)cius Verobli f princeps (Coporum).

Until the end of twelfth century, in the clauses of medieval parchment documents, the head (= Tanaiste) of every noble Galician clan or family,  retains not only his title of prince of terra, but also he retains possession of the terratreba, toudo, ciuitas, populus- with the same territorial extent and boundaries that had in the Iron Age.

A Galician Treba of the Iron Age, such as Terra Trasancos, could have 60, 80 or 120 hillforts.

castronaron-1

Lámina B)   As shown in the drawing of J. R. Fernández Villares [ex Narón I (1992)], in the period known as the castros, between Bronze Age and the year 500 A. D., the Celtic-galician farmers, vassals of the lord, lived within the walls. However, they developed their social activities and agricultural economy outside, in the cultivated lands and pastures laid out in an exterior economic space demarcated by well preserved boundaries and markings. Decoria ou crica, “demarcación”, “fronteira” , “deslinde”, “límites” [A. Pena (1992)] da briga, “castro” de Quintá, O Val, coincidentes cos da Uilla Quintana medieval.             

Each fort had its own little economic territory and jurisdiction (over 1.5 km radius), with pastures, farmlands, forests and waterways.

castro-vila3

1 Crica [demarcación] da briga ou castro de Quintá, O Val. Carlos Alfonzo  ex A. Pena                          COMÚNS CASTROS ATLÁNTICOS

All perfectly bounded [“de succo”, “furrowed by the plow”] setting up an economic jurisdiction of a Noble House (Domus = fine Irish), vassal and dependent on the territorial prince

IRISH TREBAD

TREBAD is defined in Ireland (MacCone 1990) as domestic Sovereignty, the possession of “land in peace” by all levels of society. One of its aspects -evoking the atmosphere of celebration and banquet of a hill fort in the Midchúairt, big house with a bench- is the provision of hospitality, represented by the gentle figure of the famous old Irish Briugú “hospitaller”, accommodation provider, with her ​​steaming cauldron.  The old Irish Briugú could be born – like all the nobles who are somewhat in Ireland-, in Galiza in a not less famous hostal, the tower of Brigantia.

BRIEOGO, BRIUGÚ, “HOSPEDEIRO”, “ACCOMMODATION PROVIDER”

Sometimes as Breogan / Breogan [Brian], or BERO BREO (Pena & Erias), appearing in 170 arae, intentionally shaped as funerary roman stelae, of those who escaped death in front of the Cies Islands, Insulae Deorum (Vigo).

A. Pena & A. Erias [AB 2006]

BRIEOGOBriugú “accommodation provider”.
The epithet of the god of the deads ie. * Bhrgh […], probably signifying ‘high”, “elevated”, “strong”, assignals, in the Indo-European area the presence of a god from the frontier between the life and the death in Pagan Past, precedent of the Christian Saint Peter in Christian Present. A. Pena & A. Erias [AB 2006] “For the word briugu no etymology has been suggested. Vendryes, 20 in stating that the etymology is unknown, expressly excludes any connection with the rootof brí ‘hill’: `Un rapprochement avec brí semble peu probable’, while at the same time affirming: `De mêeme, c’est un terme trop ancien pour avoir été emprunté au  breoga “gouverneur, chef ‘. Nonetheless, in spite of Vendryes’s reservations, bré‘hill’ does seem to provide a suitable starting-point for the discussion of the etymology of briuguBrí [i/e], gen. breg, acc. brig has congeners of similar meaning in all the Celtic languages and further correspondences in Germanic, e.g. Goth. baurgs, OHG burg.21 All are derived from a root *bhrgh– ‘exprimant l’idée de hauteur et de force’. A well-known Irish derivative of this root is the present participle formation found in the goddess/saint/personal name Brigit *bhrgh-nti”. The verb itself may well survive in Ir. brigaid/brigid ‘shows, declares, confirms, etc.’ […] As a perfect participle active briugu would have meant `having surpassed’ or substantivally `one who has surpassed’, referring to the prominent position occupied by the briugu in Irish society.32 It is clearly an archaic formation since the perfect participle active was no longer a productive category at any stage of the known history of the Irish language and survives only in the few lexical items noted above, `lord’, `criminal’, `witness’, and `hospitaller‘, all of which belong to the socio-legal sphere, where such survivals might be expected. This may be comparedto the parallel survival in Germanic of substantival formations from the same root with meanings also in the socio-legal sphere, as breogo (u-stem) `ruler’, ON bragr ‘metre (as elevated speech), pre-eminent’, bragningr ‘king’, Bragi `god of poetry’. Thus one may agree with Vendryes that Ir. briugu is not borrowed from AS breogo but both words and their ON congeners are differing formations based on the old root *bhrgh- [A. Jóhannesson, Isländisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (Bern 1956) 625]. Ex Gearaoid Mac Eoin “Old Irish Briugu, ‘Hospitaller’ and connected words” in Zeischrift fúr celtische Philologie ZCP 49-50 (1997), 482-93.

 

[One may agree with Vendryes –as MacEoin affirms- that Ir. briugu  [hospitaller] […] [and] breogo ‘ruler’, […] both words […] are […] formations based on the old root *bhrghnt-];

VESTIO ALONIECO “HOSPEDEIRO ALIMENTADOR”,BRIUGÚ BIATACH”  À luz do epíteto temático aposto nas aras em dat. s. Deo, “ao Deus”, Vestio Alonieco, *Uest-io possív., “hospedeiro, ‘accomodation provider’”, ie *gwest + sufixo latino –ius; cf., comparativ. o latim hostpit-, de *hosti-pot(i)s, “protetor (E. Losada Badía) dos estrangeiros” > hospes “hospedeiro, invitado, estrangeiro”, o antigo inglês giest; gótico e holandês gast; o antigo eslavo gostĭ, e o antigo frísio jest, [jesthus, hoxe gasthuis, “hospital”] (Pena & Rodal). […] ET PER TRIVIA CEREOLOS INCENDERE [DE CORRECTIONE RUSTICORUM 16] A voz sânscrita gasati, “consumir alimentos”, aludindo ao lugar de provisão de novo liga (Pena) o fogar do Hospedeiro com o ambiente hospitaleiro, um fogar feito com três portas na trivia ou tri ramot, “encruzilhada de três vias”. Assim relacionando o enigmático e descontextualizado epíteto do briugú rámatach Mac Eoin (em Bretha Etgid. CIH i, 255.7.), com um comentário sobre Cóic Conara Fuigill: […] a theach a comrac tri ramot, i, tri rot 7 mu chean fri cach gnuis; Nico eitig nach recht, nicon ursscara fri cach daim, nicon airme necah ciaba [a]mence CIH vi, 2273.39-41. “His house at the junction of three roads, (glos: ie three ways), and welcome to every face; He refuses no person, he excludes no company, he does not reckon it against anyone no matter how often he comes” . E com UB CIH v, 1608.33: TRI RAMUTA LAIS .i tri roid ar armus a tigi ara redend (sic leg.) cach cuigi “He has three roads, that is three roads coming towards his house on which everyone rides to him”. […] “We may see rámut” –diz Mac Eoin (‘Old Irish Briugú…’, 171)- “as composed or rám(a) ‘spade, pala’, and set ‘way, caminho (cf. Santistevo de Setes, Narón  e o “Camiño das ánimas “)’”. ‘Clearly’ – diz Gearóid Mac Eoin- ‘one of the conditions of Briugas was that the briugu’s house be at a cross roads for the convenience of travellers [‘Old Irish Briugú…’, 171]. O ambiente da briugaid dispensada pelo briugú na Terra, corresponde-se no Céu com a hospedaria do Deo Lari Breogo do Além, de Berobriga, celeste Jerusalém dos Celtas, onde nunca esmorece o lume baixo o caldeiro; o recinto de Deus hospitalario Vestio, Breogo, Briugú, que abriga, e recebe oferecendo comida às benditas animas, com as hospedarias para alimentar ao peregrino no Caminho e o folkore do Ciclo de Valverde. (André Pena)

at the Heaven doors of the Tower of Brigantia (Juvainville was right), Bero-Briga, “High City” -a particular Tech nDuínn-, the god of the dead, as saint Peter, awaits, sometimes with open arms and the epithet ALONIECO, “Hospitaller of Sídh” , in terms of sacred geography. 

 

HILLFORTS

 

The hillforts, Galizan habitat in the Iron Age, appear in the epigraphic record (1st-5th centuries AD) following a letter C in an inverted position Ɔ which is usually interpreted (Maria Lourdes Albertos 1975:65) as “castrum / castelum”

If this is the meaning of the sign Ɔ -usually made ​​explicit in the Lower Empire by the latin prepositions ex, de, de hoc: Interamnicus  ex Ɔ  Loucioelo; Seurra Trans (miniense) ex Ɔ Serante; etc. –  would almost have no importance, by reappearing always after the sign the briga or castelum, “castro”, “hillfort”, in the form of a toponym in ablative, without a preposition, referring to minor-places, that has in Latin, as domo, locative function.

Commentary

 

The letter c in an inverted position Ɔ appears between the Political Territory (PT) and the castro

PT                                           Ɔ         Castro/Briga (Hillfort)

Limicus                                   Ɔ          Arcuce

Cilenus                                    Ɔ          Berisamo

(Principis)Albionum                 Ɔ          Blaniobrensi

Celtica Supertamarica               Ɔ          Iureobriga

Sometimes the sign Ɔ does not appear but is replaced by the word castelum in locative:

LADRONV(S) DOVAI (F) BRACARVS CASTELLO DURBEDE [>Drvvide “Druid”] (Conimbriga 23 (1984) pp 43-54)

CLOTIVS CLUTAMI (F) SVSARRV(S) DOMO CVRVNNIACE (CIL III 2016)

                        • DOMO LUCOCADIACVS (CIL III 4227

In the funerary inscriptions, the expression of origo, oligarchy noble lineage, is indicated as follows:

name + patronymic (father’s name) + name of the Treba + home + data relating to age +location + ownership + dedicator

 

So in the monumental, roman-galician, paleo-Christian stela preserved in the museum of Lugo, the largest in the Iberian Peninsula, found in Crecente, a few miles from Santa Eulalia de Bóveda:

 

APANA (name) + AMBOLLI FILIA (patronymic) + CELTICA SUPERTAMARICA (name of the Treba) + […]MIOBRI  (home) + ANNORUM XXV (data relating to age) + H[IC] S[ITA] E[ST] (location)+ APANUS FRATER FACIENDUM CURAVIT (dedicator).

The Briga or Castro is the domo, “house”, of a dominus “lord” and his dominium comprises the economic territory, houses and fortified installations, cattle, horses and people, children and relatives, freemen and servants.

 

Land marks, “coiras”, determine the jurisdiction of a local lineage over the stable and self-sufficient small population. Nobiles in return for the transfer, for generations, of land, cómaros “plots”, to the peasants [-each with their dedication, grass; ‘souto’ to brown; ‘naveira’ for turnips, ‘painzeira’ for oats, ‘orxás’ for rye,  ‘cortinha’ for cabbages and vegetables, etc .-] receive benefits and income.

The public and private Galizan Celtic Law, rich and subtle, was maintained until the Middle Ages.

Obviously we cannot show here a complex system of co-ownership (= irish fintiu);

complex systems of emphyteusis; complex systems of locatio / conductio; complex systems of inheritance; the adoption (fosterage); the familiar Tanisty, etc. In all these aspects it presents a clear conjunction with the law of pre-Norman Ireland.

 

IN PROGRESS [AD CONTINUANDUM]

SIC/ENATA PACATA. EFEITO DA CONQUISTA NO SISTEMA JURISDICCIONAL CELTOGALAICO
 VETERE AC IAM PRIDEM RECEPTA POPULI ROMANI CONSUETUDINE (Tácito)
Irlanda não conquistada por Roma, manteve suas instituições sem interferencias até a adopção do cristianismo no século VI; ou até a invasão normanda (800,1169); senão já até a conquista pelos Tudor (S. XVI). Os reis galeses com a sua clientela, os bonheddigion governavam como pais de família o país [Hubert, 466]. Dividido igual que Irlanda em unidades políticas, quatro reinos subdivididos em Territórios Políticos ou Cantref [i] ocupados por clãs ou casas nobiliares definidos por fortes laços parentais e agnaticios. Segundo HUBERT [,441] este sistema seguíu ao que parece funcionando sem grandes tropezos no país de Gales até o século XIV.
Mas na Gallaecia Roma seguindo seu conhecido costume de aproveitar a organização pré-existente, integrou nosso sistema Celta, cheio de subtilezas, em seu direito [a, 131-150]. Converteu o sagrado lugar forum/oenach/conventus, efémera capital estacional das reuniões interterritoriais de três das confederaçãos que conformavam Gallaecia em três estáveis cidades Bracara, Lucus e Asturica.
Pasando por conquista todas as trebas e toudos a engrosar o ager publicus, eliminou todo vestígio político de unidades superiores -o mór túath, toudo mór’, comprensivo dumas quatro trebas por meio-termo que depois se chamou condado- [n, 103-121], e devolveu as trebas ou toudos em precário aos que as tinham dantes convertendo ao príncipe e ao durvede em legati, homens livres dependentes [fluidir] vassalos de Roma [á, 186-203]. Dito com mais propriedade, Roma não devolveu, aforou as Terras aos senhores vinculadas pelas três vozes da derbfine celta herdando a totalidade o filho sobrevivente da cada transmissão [p 101-130][Cf. Pena Graña http://www.celtiberia.net/articulo.asp?id=2008]
O BERÇO DO FORO GALEGO
Em Galiza como em Irlanda concediam os príncipes conducta, terras, aos servidores ou vassalos [b 24-34] como ilustra a epígrafe de Remeseiros [p 47 -50]. Roma restaurou as trebas e os senhorios familiares, e dentro das trebas restaurou [p 37-56] nos castros aos nemitos galaicos com condições. Cedeu-lhos por três vozes. Dito de outro modo, devolveu-lhes as trebas ou toudos da prosapia literalmente “aforadas”[p 103-116]  e os antigos proprietários passarão de modo técnico durante varios séculos a condutores do que lhes era propio, a tenedores [em Irlanda fluidir] dum ius in aliena re, levadores da fazenda perdida, agora conducta, por três vozes e ‘ao postremeyro’ [b, 27-314].
Obrigados a perdê-la e a retomá-la, mos pesimus, como Sísifo uma e outra vez cumprido o prazo legal e transmitir durante três gerações segundo a Celtic Law a situação jurídica a prosapia, como se fossem ‘servos de vínculo herdeditario  [em Irlanda senchléite,“de Casa Velha],” Vae victis! [p 103-121].
Ninguém discute já que por coisas de política exterior usando Roma a consuetam rationem o direito (celta) das autóctones trebas galaicas [á, 185-197] celtoparlantes[ii]parcere subiectis; aqui [o gênio romano foi nisto insuperável] se deixou subsitir o preexistente. Roma não integrou nosso mundo mediante partilha do campo, reorganização, reparcelamento e re-distribuição da propriedade, com uma reforma agrária total, as chamadas, centuriationes -entrando na partilha agora, o que reparte leva a melhor parte, soldados e colonizadores, como em Emerita da Lusitania-. Ninguém discute que as terras de Gallaecia foram devolvidas [iii] aos que já as tinham dantes [a 115-125; 131-150]. Mas com letra pequena.
LETRA PEQUENA
O Comum Direito Celta confere decorridas três gerações a um beneficiado ou condutor [bó-aire em Irlanda], a plena propriedade de sua conduta, beneficium ou comenda [iv]. O bó-aire decorrido o plazo legal das três vozes, se converte em flath [o rango do locador], adquire pleno direito sobre a propriedade
Cogidubnus ou Tongidubnus [falecido no ano 83] intitulou-se segundo Cunliffe e Rusell Ard rí, Rex Magnus Britonum “Grande Rey, Imperadordos Britones”; – com independência das lectiones da quinta regra da famosa inscrição RIB 91 atopada em Chichester em 1723[v]-, fora de toda dúvida como Legatus do imperador, segundo refíreo Tácito em Agricola, XIV, 14:
“Algumas cidades”-escreve Tácito ao final do reinado de Dominiciano- “foram dadas [at/tributae, de onde Attrebates cf. Pena…] ao Rei Cogidumno – (quem se manteve até nossos dias como o mais fiel dos aliados)- segundo a já velha e experimentada prática do Povo Romano, de se valer inclusive de seus próprios reis como instrumentos de domínio [Agricola XIV, 14]” [vi].
Finalizadas as guerras cántabras, Octavio Augusto culminou a conquista de Gallaecia, num século dantes de que Agrícola terminasse a conquista de Britania, entrando no ager publicus, as Terras dos nobres galaicos terratenentes (ai. Flaths), e as dos seus vassalos e servos. Sempre há exceção que confirma a regra, como mostra o chamado Edicto de Bembibre [á 189-203]
Castellanos · Paemeiobrigenses · ex ·/ gente · Susarrorum · […] […] eos · universos · im/munitate · perpetua · dono · quosq(ue) / agros · et quibus · finibus · possede/ runt · […] […] / eos · agros · sine · controversia · possi/ dere · iubeo[vii].
             A terra segundo a já velha e experimentada pratica do Povo Romano de se valer das próprias instituições dos povos conquistados como instrumento de domínio, retornou de novo aos que a tinham dantes.  Mas já não era o mesmo, volta de outra maneira. Augusto, bem asesorado por seu corpo de jurisperitos, retornou essas terras agora do ager publicus, aforadas (para que se entenda) por três vozes (da derbfine celta).
Um contrato sinalagmático fundamentado na Bona Fides [‘patronus si clienti fraudem fecerit, sacer esto’, e vice versa] obrigando a ambas as partes patronus, e clientes, nun tenor. Decorridas as três vozes precisava-se o renovo condicionado a fides patroni [hospitium vetustom antiquon renouauerunt]. Assim usando do próprio direito celta o Império, se assegurou o controle e fidelidade da nutrida clientela galaica.
Analisemos mostrando as bases ‘do tráfico jurídico entre os romanos e os autóctonos galaicos celtoparlantes -lhes remetendo a meus pormenorizados análises do denso marco jurisdiccional e institucional dos hospitia [á, 270- 277;p,103-130]-como mostra um Hospitium que aparece numa tabula hospitalis ou placa de bronze encontrada num lugar de Lugo:
C. Caesare Aug. f.L.Aemilio.Paullo.cos / ex gente.Asturum. conventus Arae. / Auguste / ciuitas Lougeiorum. hospitium.fecit.cum / C.Asinio.Gallo. [1ª voz] libereis posterisque.eius / [2ª voz] eumque.liberos. posterosque.eius. [3ª voz] sive.libe/reis.postereisque.suis. patronum.cooptarunt / isque.eos. in
[i] Parelhos semántica e institucionalmente as Trebas  Can / Tref = Tre = Trifu = Treba = Teuta = Tuath= Touto =Toudo= Thaurp= Tribu; Con / Trebia, Con / Tributi e dicir Trebas xunguidas vontariamente [fonte aos atribuidos por conquista, at/tributi = a/trebates]. Os galeses tomaram da casa, (Trebad no esquema de soberania doméstica) os diversos termos com os que se desiña a propriedade territorial, dotando a cada pessoa livre da família que chega à idade adulta com a trev de terra. [í, 115-117]
[ii] <<Dentro da estructura clientelar desta soberania doméstica, vinculam-se verticalmente com um “rei de reis”, com um ard-rí, ao modo de uma colmea nas mãos de um apicultor, tanto o túath ou território político como a função soberana do próprio rí-tuath. Neste contexto, devemos enquadrar no NW peninsular, na Gallaecia, os hospitia interterritoriais, uns nós dados provavelmente numa asamblea estacional, ora entre duas trebas, ora entre trebas e particulares, ora entre as trebas e o Império, tais como os acordos pactuados por Iria com o Regnum Suevorum ou os firmados entre senhores de comissa ou territoria: os comites seu imperantes, com o chamado Ovetense Regnum. Mas esta instituição não foi uma exclusividade da Gallaecia, pois as pequenas peças em bronze que tão plasticamente mostram com uma aperta de mãos o aspecto vasalático, constituintes no N/NE peninsular do repertório composto pelas tesserae hospitalis celtibéricas, acoplam perfeitamente com um mais amplo encadeamento territorial atlântico de dependências verticais similar ao nosso. Mediante este tipo de vencellos um TP, ou um particular, supeditabase a outro. Os in fidem acceptos por um princeps, ou pelo seu Território Político, convertiam-se em dependente da Treba receptora, sendo, segundo o penso, quizáis este o sentido da voz celtibérica com / trebia e à latina com / tributi. Como contrapartida de verdadeiras contraprestazóns, ajuda militar ou o pagamento dum censo recebiam-se terras (previamente donadas e protecção)>>.
[iii] Como o mostra o famoso Edicto do Bierzo, ou  de Bembibre, que estudei em o ano 2000 num capítulo de minha tese de licenciatura, deixada para pública consulta na Secretaria do departamento de História I da Universidade de Santiago.
[iv]  Obrigados a pagar ao locador em a cada transmição a loitosa dos cavaleyros. “Originariamente recebia-a o senhor pela perda em todos os eidos -não só económicos- que lhe supunha ter que prescindir  não só pela morte como é o caso que ilustro- dum vassalo ou infanção ao que cedesse terras. Esta compensação seria dada pelos familiares do beneficiado depois da morte sem sucessão [ou depois do abandono do bem pelo beneficiado], obrigados a devolver em seu prístino estado os bens cedidos pelo senhor. Este sentido vemo-lo claramente na carta de Balóm de 14 de junho de 1138 de Guntroda Ferveiz: ‘In Dei nomine, ego Guntrode Ferueiz, una pariter cum filio meo Ferueo et filia mea Guntrode Pelaiz in domino Deo eternam amen. Placuit nobis adque conuenit nullis quoquegentis imperio nec suadenti articulo, set propia nobis fuit uoluntas, ut faceremus kartula de ipsa hereditate de Baloni a tibi filio meo Froila Pelagii pro ipso tuo caballo que mihi dedisti que ego dedi a Uermuu Petriz et pectauit illum ad ille Ueremudus Petriz pro intentione de ipso meo filio prenominato Ero Pelaiz qui tenuit ille Ero sua terra de Uermuu Petriz  et dimisit ille Ero illa terra sine gratude Uermuu Petriz, et proinde pecit ille Uermuu illa hereditate ad illa Guntrode pro pignora, qui si illa potuisset habere suo filio, quod redisset ratione de illa terra, et illa non potuit illum habere per nullum ingenium et proinde do ego, Guntrode, ipso kauallo de meo filio Froila, et sacco ipsa hereditate de Uermuu Petriz. (T. II Sobrado, f. 127r Ex P. de Loscertales)’”.
[v] Possivelmente a lectio de Bogaers (1979) é a correta […] (4) [EX]·AVCTORITAT[E·TI]·CLAVD· /(5) [CO]GIDVBNI·R[EG·MA]GNI·BRIT, [Monumento feito] por ordem de Tiberio Claudio Cogidubno [ou Tongidubno], grande rei dos Britanos.
[vi] Quaedam civitates Cogidumno regi donatae (is ad nostram usque memoriam fidissimus mansit), vetere ac iam pridem recepta populi Romani consuetudine, ut haberet instrumenta servitutis et reges. Tácito. Agricola XIV, 14.
[vii]  Edicto de Bembibre por mim estudado em minha tese de licenciatura, terminada o dia 1º de fevereiro, dia de Santa Brígida, de 2001, depositada trala súa leitura na biblioteca dá USC; Um ano despois, em 2002, calcando os nosos passos nun asombroso exercicio de convergencia científica -habitual nos presentes tempos de indulgência xeral- o professor, hoxe catedrático da USC, Marco Virgilio García Quintela confirmou em tropeçada TAPA, a cada um dos meus asertos e contidos da mencionada tese de licenciatura. Para ele meu agradecimiento.

ORATORES/BELLATORES/LABORATORES

 

From the point of view of institutions, these tribes share much more than common names  such as Brigantini, Nemetati, Belgae, Contrebiae/Contributi, Attributi, etc. They share (Pena Graña 2004) a twofold sovereignty, a prince or king of the tribe, and a druid or religious leader, a feudal (feudal-vassal) system,  resting, as in the Middle Ages on three ordines,

BELLATORES[6] reges, principes, and the subordinate noble rank clientes, ambactos, nobiles/equites, magistri etc.,[7]; ORATORES, durvedes  –druids, the real power over tribal disputes, deliberate and decide on all issues and conflicts-, ovates and filid[8]; LABORATORES, [plebesvulgi, servii ]the commonality– says Caesar (BG vi- 13) -is held almost in the condition of slaves, and dares to undertake nothing of itself, and is admitted to no deliberation” .

TEXTO DE DIAPOSITIVA

The ‘Celtic fringe’ is not limited to music, to language, to religion, to art and crafts…it is basically a rigid theocratic and jurisdictional system, a pyramidal complex regulating rights and obligations in the Toudo or Treba. A theocracy, with a common universal law and institutions, guarded, applied, developed and interpreted by the clergy (durvedes).

 

ORATORES/CELTIC CHURCH. DRUIDS/DURVEDES

 

Celtic Europe not only shares the names of the tribes and the gods. It also shares an identical political constitution as a result of receiving younger sons of noble houses of Celtic Europe, in centralized international learning centers, a common rigid education controlled by the Celtic Church.

 

The clergy, extracted from the noble younger sons, from all-Celtic tribes of Europe [BG VI, 13. 4 ad hos magnus adulescentium numerus disciplinae causa concurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore]; educated in international seminars elected by the excellence of teaching and teachers – as today in Oxford or in Sorbonne -, [CAESAR BG VI, 13][9]

 

All the effective political power is in the hands of the vertically organized clergy, held by Druids (BG VI), forming a true universal church able to hold ecumenical councils to elect a visible and infallible head. This is the forerunner, but with far more power, of the Catholic Church. An international clergy, interconnected – as tolerable, was the Abbey of Cluny with the rest of the monasteries of the order in the twelfth century -, using the Greek alphabet  [in reliquis fere rebus, publicis privatisque rationibus Graecis litteris utantur]. Ordained priests when returning home would apply, with precision, in their countries, the Common Law learned at school[10].

 

TEXTO DE DIAPOSITIVA

 

They are responsible to represent, in conspectu populi, the mystical union between the king and the tribe, symbolized by the sacrifice of a white mare, to cook in a pot their meat and blood, and then distribute communion to all the grades of the society. Responsible for consecrating and enthroning them in the stone altar of the tribe [CROUGIN TOUDADIGO; TREBO PALA; TOUDO PALA, the Galizan Lía Fail, or stone of Scone[11].

They oversee circumambulatio, the inauguration ceremony of the King, around the border of the tribe. And with the power to consecrate kings, they have the power to interdict, excommunicate, or deprive them of their kingdoms[12]. Druids also have the control of the jurisdictional sphere – including public law and private law; the control of metrology –weights, measures, calendar-,  of technology, of religion, etc.

 

 

RELIGION

Comentario de diapositiva

The Celts from the insular and continental Atlantic Europe, far from the faithful, above the local cults, left us a common pantheon and a common theology. Basically –together with the Matres-, a Trinitarian Monotheistic religion embodied the three steps of the sun (Sky, Sea, Other World) in the orbe tripartito.

The sun orbits the earth in three steps. In the first step it takes possession of the sky, in the second one it takes possession of the sea, and in the third one it takes possession of the earth, the underworld. It is conceived as a child and a teenager in the first step [with the related epithets sometimes shared in roman interpretatio by the same deities, Mars Apollo, as it happens with Lug, Lugh, Lugos, Leud, Lheu “Shining God,” Mabon “Divine Youth”, Grannos “bright as scarlet” Belenos “Whitest”, “Luster”, “Gorgeous”, Cocidius “Warrior” or, more likely, “Red”, Segos “Victorious,” Brian “Strong” , Bandua “Tie with the rope”, and so on] as a psychopomp, guide of souls, in the second step [Vestius “host of the Beyond”, Oghmios “The Way”, Setanta “The Wanderer”; and as dying God and a judge of the afterlife in the third.

MATRES (MATRES GALLAECIAE)

COMENTARIOS DE DIAPOSITIVAS

–  YOUNG VIRGIN of extraordinary beauty, embodiment of the State, choose the king to rule the Treba or Toudo after undergoing a test, marries him, grows old with him, and on the death of the king becomes young again, and finds another husband, another king, to rule the land.

-VIRGIN, MOTHER OF THE DYING GOD ESUS representing the fruits and emergence of summer

– OLD WOMAN Caileach Builder of the landscape and the megalithic monuments.

The long March of the Celts to insular and continental Europe, left us the whole nation of cohesive clergy, owner of real power -as Caesar fears, because the king commands the men, the Druid in the consciences of men- possessor of the law, applying the right to judge and impose penalties.

 

COMENTARIO DE DIAPOSITIVA

In Plate I, on a map of Patrice Brun (1995) we see the autonomous political Celtic territories of Gaul reconstructed following the boundaries of the medieval dioceses (rural bishoprics).

 

In Plate II (PENA GRAÑA 1994), on a similar map, some princedoms or trebas/toudos, autonomous political Celtic territories from the Galizan Atlantic coast can be seen. All of them reconstructed (PENA GRAÑA 1991) following the boundaries of the medieval “parrochiae, dioceses or sedes,“rural bishoprics” attached to Iria both in the Concilium Bracarense secundum in era DCX ( 572 AD) and in the Divisio Theodemiri, made in Lucense Concilium (569 AD).

 

The sudden appearance of rural dioceses, without urban life, overlaid on the Celtic political territory of pre-Roman Iron Age, reveals the mass conversion of the Galizan-Roman clergy to Christianity around the year 314 -when the Diocese of Beteka, unknown Treba, Toudo, Populus of Civitas of Gallaecia, sent a priest to Gaul, to represent their episcopus, “bishop” at the Council of Arles-.

 

So, the instantly established Galizan Christian Celtic church, ruled over the princedoms, trebas, toudos, ciuitates, populi. And in a similar way the Irish Celtic church shares common features with the Galizan Church, when, 250 years later, after the conversion of Ard-ri, its Celtic vassals and clergy, installed on túatha, “political territories” became Christians.

 

Si en las Gallaeciae, Lucense,  Bracarense y Asturica, la Divisio Theodemiri significa la supresión del episcopado, su substitución por sedes abbatiles –coincidentes con las trebas o toudos- y la aparición poco después del arciprestazgo medieval, en Irlanda tenderá a su vez a desaparecer el episcopado rural por los mismos motivos, esto es: la multiplicidad de los túatha circunscritos, como en Galicia, en diócesis demasiado exiguas y sin vida urbana, convierten a los obispados en centros monásticos (Armag, Derri, Kildare, etc) y a las sedes en sedes “abbatiles”. Asi  pasaron en el área cultural atlántica los viejos durvedes o druidas, flamines y “episcopi” de ovates a abbates, cambiando todo para seguir igual aunque el presente era ya cristiano, creándose un cristianismo muy particular, integrador del pasado pagano. Así nace en Galicia el llamado Priscilianismo, donde es una Virgen cierta Luz que produce la lluvia (OROSIO), donde Santa Ana se gesta en el interior de una pierna de su padre y donde San Xiao do Trebo, tras matar a sus padres cuando regresa de una cacería al creerse engañado por su fiel esposa, con la que los encuentra reposando de noche en un mismo lecho, se hace santo. Menos madrugador el pais de Gales se cristianizaria, con los mismos presupuestos en el siglo V.

[1] Our Political Territory was named in Galician and Lusitanian language TREBA. The voice, from the domestic sovereignty, means “House,” Shire”,” Political Territory “. Pliny mentions the Arroni or Arrotrebae, this is Arros or County Arrós. And the voice Treba is mentioned twice -among the epithets undoubtedly intensify the role of Matres – in an inscription found in Cabeço das Fraguas, Portugal, written in late Vulgar Latin, infiltrated with the substrate of the Lusitanian-Galician language. Towards the end of the registration TREBARUNE [psb. determinant “of the Treb” + determinated “Moon” (r / l) “Luna”, and, again REVE TR[EBARUNA?] – psb. Old Irish Re, Reve “moon”- ], and to the beginning of the inscription in TREBO-PALA, referring no doubt this time to an “altar stone”, meaning the ancient voice pala “stone”, (Old Irish fail) of the tribe in terms of sacred geography. The altar stone also appears as TOUDO-PALA (* TEWTO-PALA, “Túatha Fáil” ) or CROUGIN-TOUDADIGO [CROUGIN/Cruachan “Stone altar” TOUDADIGO (as Teutates), “of the túath”]. In the epigraphic record of the Northwest’s voice also TREB [A] appears in Gallaecia Bracarense in a cruciform landmark terminalis pointing border of Obili [Anci?]: TERM [MINVS] TREB [AE] OBILI [ANCORUM? [Sanfins; Valpaços, Chaves (Portugal)]

[2] Hubert assinala que Gales conheceu a palavra TREBA para o Teritorio político, dantes de que quatro reinos se repartissem o país subdividido em distritos chamados Can/tref. As vozes CONTREBIA (Celtiberia) e CONTRIBUTI (Interim Oscenses et Calagurritani qui erant cum oscensibus contributi –Caesar BC 1, 60-), expressam confederación; as vozes ATREBATES e ATTRIBUTI a anexión por conquista de umas tribos a outra à que pagam tributo censum (lat. AT/TRIBUERE) (insulae Rhodis attributae = “ilhas anexadas a Rodas”)

[3] In 2004 Trinity College Dublin published genetic research. Being “National Identity” and Celtic Legacy, consubstantial concepts, in the language, history, legends and literature of Ireland, the Irish Government, to document, accorded to common opinion, the arrival of the Celts from Central Europe in the V century BC, funded a study led by Dan Bradley and Brian McEvoy.

But comparing DNA samples from 200 volunteers from various parts of Ireland with a genetic database of 8500 individuals across Europe, Bradley and McEvoy, found something different, confirming McEvoy: “The primary genetic legacy of Ireland, seems to have come from people from Spain and Portugal after the last ice age”, in fact a genetic legacy of Mesolithic and Neolithic of Gallaecia and the Atlantic coast of Iberia. “We have” – McEvoy said-, “a much older genetic legacy”, which could according mistakenly they thought not be Celtic.

However the study of TCD, of Bradley and McEvoy, in fact redefined the concept of Celtica, when combined in a map of Europe Genetic profiles [haplotipe R1b (Y-DNA)] noted in the Atlantic Cultural Area corresponding to Algarve, Gallaecia, Cantabria, Basque Country, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Britain.

[4] – Mac Neill (1911) Byrne (1971)-

[5] Regnante rege A[defonso] in Legione et in Asturiis et in Gallecia. Gundissalvo Nunit tenente Monte Roso et medio de Transtamar. Petro Suarii archiepiscopo […] Petrus ARteiru rex de Milide. an 1205, Agosto 16 . T. II Sobrado dos Monxes. Fol 62 vto. In Pilar de Loscertales de Valdeavellano.

[6] CAESAR BG VI, 13

[7] CAESAR BG , V, 5; V, 25; V, 54; VI, 15

[8] CAESAR  BG VI, 13-14

[9] 11 Disciplina in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam translata esse existimatur ] Brought over twenty years in many fields [BG 14. 2 Tantis excitati praemiis et sua sponte multi in disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus propinquisque mittuntur. […] Itaque annos nonnulli vicenos in disciplina permanent] including public and private law.

[10]  “For they determine respecting almost all controversies, public and private; and if any crime has been perpetrated, if murder has been committed, if there be any dispute about an inheritance, if any about boundaries, these same persons decide it; they decree rewards and punishments (CAESAR BG VI, 13 .5)

[11] VI 13. 8 His autem omnibus druidibus praeest unus, qui summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. 9 Hoc mortuo aut si qui ex reliquis excellit dignitate succedit, aut, si sunt plures pares, suffragio druidum, nonnumquam etiam armis de principatu contendunt. 10 hi certo anni tempore in finibus Carnutum, quae regio totius Galliae media habetur, considunt in loco consecrato. Huc omnes undique, qui controversias habent, conveniunt eorumque decretis iudiciisque parent.

8Over all these Druids one presides, who possesses supreme authority among them. 9 Upon his death, if any individual among the rest is pre-eminent in dignity, he succeeds; but, if there are many equal, the election is made by the suffrages of the Druids; sometimes they even contend for the presidency with arms. 10These assemble at a fixed period of the year in a consecrated place in the territories of the Carnutes, which is reckoned the central region of the whole of Gaul. Hither all, who have disputes, assemble from every part, and submit to their decrees and determinations

[12] “if any one, either in a private or public capacity, has not submitted to their decision, they interdict him from the sacrifices. This among them is the most heavy punishment. Those who have been thus interdicted are esteemed in the number of the impious and the criminal: all shun them, and avoid their society and conversation, lest they receive some evil from their contact; nor is justice administered to them when seeking it, nor is any dignity bestowed on them”. -And we fail to remember the status of the Emperor Henry IV before Pope Gregory VII at Canossa –

 

IN PROGRESS [AD CONTINUANDUM]

 

Esta obra atópase baixo unha licenza internacional Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0. Calquera forma de reprodución, distribución, comunicación pública ou transformación desta obra non incluída na licenza Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0 só pode ser realizada coa autorización expresa dos titulares, salvo excepción prevista pola lei. Pode acceder Vde. ao texto completo da licenza nesta ligazón: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.gl

 

About fidalgosdenaron

André Pena, funcionario de carreira historiador, arqueólogo e arquiveiro do Concello de Narón, é doutor en arqueoloxía e historia antiga e decano do Instituto Galego de Estudos Celtas IGEC. Especializado no estudo das Relixións da Antigüidade; a Relixión Celta e a súa influencia no presente Cristián; da Mitología comparada; das Institucións Celtas e Indoeuropeas; dos Santuarios Celtas; da Orixe pagana e o presente cristián do Camiño de Santiago e de San Andrés e da Historia de Galiza.
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