A historia do Concello de Narón está directamente vencellada co esforzo realizado desde a Administración local para coñecer o pasado da que hoxe é a oitava cidade de Galicia. Foi precisamente este Consistorio pioneiro a nivel autonómico en crear unha historia factográfica, isto é, partindo das súas propias fontes documentais. Hai que remontarse ao ano 1987 para situarnos nos tempos nos que os labores de investigación do pasado desta localidade se intensificaron grazas á decidida aposta económica do goberno local naronés, que non escatimou recursos para paliar a falta de estudos sobre a historia da cidade. MARIÁN FERREIRO DÍAZ, ALCALDESA DO CONCELLO DE NARÓN
Ars longa, vita brevis. There is still a long way to go in the History of Narón and we have walked a long way.
In 1987, aware of the unique opportunity to materialize the old dream of the Seminar of Galician Studies with the History of Narón, studying in the long term the genesis and evolution since the Neolithic of a region: A Terra de Trasancos, I gave up a professional career in painting [to which I intend to return, God willing, after my retirement on December 1st of this year].
With deep affection and sincere gratitude to my neighbours, friends and family, rendering homage to the Council of Narón, which I served for more than three decades, I would like to offer as a sample of what I have done to spread our History and the power of the new branch of Archaeology that enriches and complements the existing ones, named “Institutional Archaeology” by Venceslás Kruta, this blog FIDALGOS DE NARÓN including many links to works, books, audiovisuals and some other publications of the City Council of Narón.
As alien to any racial or geographical consideration, a common Canon Law affects equally and unifies all the curas, “priests” and curia of the Catholic world; in the same way, happily alien to issues of race, dynamics, languages, displacements, archaeological objects of the World Economic System, there is a Universal, Unified and Codified Celtic Law, Public and Private, discovered by the Institutional Archaeology, in the course of the investigation of the first and second volumes of the series “Narón, Un Concello Con Historia De Seu”: The Celtic Common Law.
Como, alleo a calquera consideración racial ou xeográfica, un común Dereito Canónico afecta e unifica a todos os curas e curia do Orbe Católico; do mesmo modo, felizmente alleo a cuestións de razas, de dinámica, de linguas, de desplazamentos, de obxetos arqueolóxicos do World Economic System, existe un Universal, Unificado e Codificado Dereito Celta, Público e Privado, descuberto no transcurso da investigación do primeiro e segundo volume da serie Narón Un Concello Con Historia de Seu: A Celtic Common Law.
Dean Of The Galician Institute For Celtic Studies IGEC
XIV Comhdháil Idináisiúnta sa Léan Celiteach Maig Nuad, 2011
IN THE BEGINNING
FANCIFUL BUT MISTAKEN IDENTITY? MOST CERTAINLY NOT
Abstract: Paleohispanic Languages. Cultural Unity Of Atlantic Europe In Bronze Age. Atlantic Routes Of The Irish And Breton Monks In The High Middle Ages. Notes on Celtic Institutional Organization InThe Political Autonomous Territories Of Ancient Gallaecia. Material Culture: Continuum. Celtic Feminine Sovereignty And Its Cult Traces In The Peninsular West. The 1st of May: Druids And Saints. The Impact Of Romanization In Galicia. A Historiographical Review Of Galician Celticism.
In spite of the pretensions of Impoverished British Archaeology, over and over again attempting to force us into Hallstatt with its paralogisms ‘The cradle of the Celts lies in the Atlantic Neolithic Continuity’
The instruction, against all odds, seems to be to dismantle it
Being National Identity and Celtic Legacy consubstantial concepts in the language, history, legends and literature of Ireland, the Irish Government, to document, according to common opinion, the arrival of the Celts from Central Europe
FAKE THEORY!!! I should like to warn the audience that at the beginning of the Bronze Age [and, of course, since The Neolithic], all the languages spoken in the Iberian Peninsula were Celtic (sic) and Indo-European languages [Xaverio Ballester, M. Almagro, A. Pena, etc.]. The current Basque country was inhabited in the Iron Age by various peoples -all of them full Celtic speakers-: the Vardulos, the Caristios, the Autrigones, etc. Speakers of non-Indo-European languages; that is, speakers of non-native languages of Europe, like the Basques, and the Iberians of the East of the Ebro, they arrived in the Iberian Peninsula in very recent, historical times, with the so-called Urn Fields.
in the V century, BC funded a genetic study led by Dan Bradley and Brian McEvoy (2004). But comparing DNA samples from 200 volunteers from various parts of Ireland with a genetic database of 8500 individuals across Europe, Bradley, and McEvoy, found something different, confirming McEvoy:
The primary genetic legacy of Ireland seems to have come from people from Spain and Portugal after the last Ice Age”, in fact, a genetic legacy of Mesolithic and Neolithic of Gallaecia and the Atlantic coast of Iberia. “We have” – McEvoy said-, “a much older genetic legacy
A genetic legacy of Mesolithic and Neolithic of Gallaecia and the Atlantic coast of Iberia.
However the study o TCD, of Bradley and McEvoy, in fact, redefined the concept of Celtica, when combined in a map of Europe Genetic profiles [haplotipe R1b[Y-DNE]
Font: VV AA
noted in the Atlantic Cultural Area corresponding to Portugal, Gallaecia, Cantabria, Basque Country, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Britain.
If the Ice Age glacial advance forced the Paleolithic Europeans to seek shelter from the climate in places such as the Atlantic Lands End of NW Iberia, Finisterre,
A design of Carlos Alfonso for O Val, A Súa Historia. Fundación Terra de Trasancos. Concello de Narón
the subsequent climate change and ice retreat allowed the people settled for such a long period in the Atlantic coast of Iberia to return to Europe […] [ and also to sub-Saharan Africa].
Northern hemisphere glaciation during the last ice ages. The accumulation of 3 to 4 km thick ice sheets caused a sea-level lowering of about 120 m. Also, the Alps and the Himalayas were covered by glaciers. Winter sea ice coverage was much more limited in the south. [Wikipedia]. Hannes Grobe/AWI – own work – redrawn, supplemented and modified graphics from John S. Schlee (2000) Our changing continent, United States Geological Survey., CC BY 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=973487
As our rich mythology explains, these people probably left by sea from current Galiza, Nation of Breogão [“Brian”], first toward Ireland
-as referring the legends the arrival in Ireland of the Gaels from Brigantia (A Coruña)-
At the beginning of the Bronze Age [and, of course, since The Neolithic], all the spoken languages in the Iberian Peninsula were Celtic (sic) and Indo-European languages [Xaverio Ballester, M. Almagro, A. Pena, etc.].
“At the beginning of the Bronze Age [and, of course, since the Neolithic], all the languages spoken in the Iberian Peninsula were Common Ancient Celtic, sic, and ‘Indo-European’ languages [Xaverio Ballester, M. Almagro, A. Pena, etc.]. The present Basque Country was inhabited in the Iron Age by several trebas or toudos [generally called by the Romans civitates/populi] -all of them Celtic-speaking: the Vardulos, the Caristios, the Autrigones, etc. The speakers of non-Indo-European languages -that is, speakers of languages not originating in Europe, such as the Basques and the Iberians from the east of the Ebro-, arrived, my dear J. T. Koch, in the Iberian Peninsula in very recent historical times (9th and 6th centuries B.C.) with the so-called Urn Fields. PromptemaTrasancos. Location in keys of Physical and Sacred Celtic Geography, in the two ‘Puntas de España’ [Cabo San Vicente and Cabo Prior, “Western Extremes of Hispania“], of the concept and related words Trasancos / Tartessos / Tartares / Tartaro, on the map of the [Mesolithic and Neolithic] ‘expansion’ of the Celts and the Celtic Common Law, from its cradle [in PCP]: Galtia or Kaltia “ Galitia> Galiza or Gallaecia”, through the interior of the Iberian Peninsula, and through insular and continental Europe [we do not include here the expansion through North Africa]. Details. Above, right : Brief clause in the small slate disc of Santa Comba, Covas, Ferrol , possibly in singular dative, Reve Trasanciuge [probably better lectio, “reading”, than Trasanciange (Trasancian+i+ca); Reve [Theme in “a”, probably an epithet for the Mater, Re-ba [b/v] “Raising Moon, Ascension of the Moon”]; the small slate tile found by me in Covas contains, without a doubt, the name of, and of the Trasancos or Tartares. The name of our Terra “Land,” or Treba, is [ In PCP Key, Paleolithic Continuity Paradigm] very old and invariable in the so-called Indo-European languages. This voice is not a hydronym – tartaric acid does not hydrate the skin! -. Probably the voice of the Common Ancient Celtic, allusive to the rozas, “controlled burns” of the mountain and valley to cultivate, of our first farmers. For interpretatio of the Sacred Celtic Geography, it surely would pass to Tartares [reduplication of *trs, cf, a.Irl. tart, “thirst”], and in Sacred Indo-European Geography [Homer, Hesiod, Estesicorus] as the location of Tartarusin partes extremas Gallaeciae . ‘Monasterio [S. Martiño] de Iuvia vocitato Tartares”; possibly originating our modern place-names Inferniño, “Little Hell”, or Lamas do Inferno, “Hell Swamps”. Trasancos: psb. stem *Ters+ ancos [ being -ancos [>*-aniecos] a conmon suffix of the contiguous counties, trebas/toudos, of , and of the Nem-ancos; *Prut-encos [ *Prut-an-i-ecos > Britanicos?], Bes-ancos; Tras-ancos; Lapati-ancos, etc.,] *ters-, stem of Trasancos, *Ters+ an+i+cos pssbl. possibly, “those who burn the bush to cultivate” [Pokorny 1078 (1870/47)] *ters-, idg., V., Sb.: nhd. trocknen, verdorren, dürsten, Durst; ne. dry (V.), thirst (N.); RB.: ind., iran., arm., gr., alb., ital., kelt., germ.; Hw.: s. *tr̥su-, *tr̥si̯ā, *tr̥sto-; W.: gr. τέρσεσθαι (térsesthai), V., trocken werden; W.: gr. τερσαίνειν (tersaínein), V., trocken machen, abtrocknen, abwischen; W.: s. gr. τρασιά(trasiá), tarsim̥ (tarsiá), F., Darre, Flechtwerk zum Trocknen; W.: s. lat. terra, F., Land, Erdboden; vgl. ae. fel-terr-e, sw. F. (n), Erdgalle (eine Pflanze); W.: lat. torrēre, V., dörren, braten, backen, rösten, sengen, versengen, entzünden; […] germ. * þarzjan, sw. V., trocknen, dörren; an. þerr-a, sw. V. (1), trocknen; W.: germ. *þarzjan, sw. V., trocknen, dörren; a.irl Tart “thirst”. “For the rest” – says Jürgen Untermann, – “the Turd root may have a common origin with the Turtroot, Tart-, Tars-which forms the basis of several toponyms of the Tartessian world: Turta is used by Catón to name the whole region; Greek Ταρτησος, in Polibio Ταρσηιον, and Phoenician Taršišrepresent the different evolutions of an original name, which has not been preserved”. In Jurgen Untermann “CÉLTICOS Y TÚRDULOS” PalHisp 4 (2004), 207 Down, left. Epigraph of Kaltia’s (galician) Nerio, Tasionos, who died among the conios, inTartessos, where when burning the mountain to cultivate, the waters eroded the land and were left without ports, having to be transferred the population to the island of Cadiz -[reinforcing, although not necessarily, this intrinsic idea of burning tart, ters, and derivatives]. // Bottom left. Our Nerio Tasiono was undoubtedly in Tartessos considering himself part of the family, feeling as if they were in their own home, for as Strabo tells us in 3,3,5: “Around the Promontory Nerio [Cape Finisterre] live THE CELTICS WHO ARE RELATED [ SINGENEIS συγγενείς ] TO THOSE WHO LIVE ON THE ORILLS OF THE GUADIANA RIVER”; dispelling doubts of priority [ whatever, if you want a ride, take a ride, but prevent yourself from ‘birrasmendazhistorietomínimoculturocastrante’ taking you for a ride, once again making us confuse a cat with a hare, when he wants us to buy a pig in a poke -], the prelatic principle that makes those of Vila-velha “Old Village” precede those of Vila-nova “New Village” , also operates for the Turdulli , “Thrushes” [ie. *trusdo, ir. truid, “tordo” , they call themselves Turdulli ‘Veteres’, “The Old Ones”, [Mela 3, 1] id est “Old Thrushes”, and when Strabo tells us in 3, 2, 12: “The country of Tartessis, which today is inhabited by the Turdulli“, he speaks, of course, of the newcomers from Gallaecia” A. Pena.
Language extended, as expected since not all emigrants would be mute, in the long march to Atlantic Europe insular and continental, and to the north of Africa – the Amazigh Berbers of the Atlas, p. e. -, giving rise to the pleiade of common place names, river names, deity names, etc., absolutely Celts [ J. J. Moralejo]
Although, perhaps due to personal comparative needs, Sim Willians only remembers in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula the place name Brigantia, present name Corunna What does it matter? In Galice, there is the largest number of place-names in Briga per square centimeter of Europe.
They spoke an Atlantic Iberian ancient Q-Celtic language
TA-TE-R-TA-r-O. Deer bone founded in O Bancal, A Corunna, Galice, at the beginning of the XIX Century. Cf BOUVIER, Michel (2003), “L’An de L’Ecriture”. Indo-European language on stag bone, Bancal de la Coruna, Spain, ca. 4000-3800BC, 1 bone, 2,2×7,1×1,2 cm, line with 6 [West] Iberian signs […] [lectio de André Pena boustrophedon TA-TE-R-TA-r-O [psb= TARTARO, with re-duplication] -bástulo-turdetano- ], paper label pasted on the back with 3 lines of cursive script: […] [deer antler engraved with text. Context: Similar bones are MSS5237/1 and 5238./ Provenance: 1. Found Bancal de la Coruna, Hallaisgode, Stain, nº 104 (1916), 2. Private collection, Spain, n 104 (1916); 3 Michel Bouvier, Paris. Cat. L’Art de L’Ecriture, 2003. 4. Commentary: Hans Jensen, in “Sign, symbol and script”, pp. 37-39, dates the signs from Dolmen d’Alvão in Portugal to about 4000 BC being attached to Iberian writing. In the question of the ‘traceability’ of the epigraph TA-TE-R-TA-r-O– which could have been engraved on the deer antler at a later time -, a swallow doesn’t make summer. However, we should consider ancient sources indicating the Galician origin of the Tartessian and the Turduli [Turduli veteres] world. According to ancient historians, there were records in common ancient Celtic with their own Paleo-Hispanic alphabet or signatory, that was already several thousand years old at that time. The Treba dos Trasancos and the toponym Tartares are documented a few kilometers from where the inscription was found.
-as described by authors as Eulogio Losada Badia
WAS J. T. COCH THE FIRST TO DEMONSTRATE THAT TARTESSIAN IS A CELTIC LANGUAGE?
“Las escrituras celtohispánicas” (Eulogio Losada Badia, Universités de Lyon et Paris)
WAS J. T. COCH THE FIRST TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE TARTESIAN IS A CELTIC LANGUAGE? Well, not exactly. We must remember -without diminishing the glory that belongs to J. T. Koch- that some years earlier -while Koch undoubtedly inadvertently ignores this circumstance- Eulogio Losada Badía had shown, that the Tartessian was an alphabet built on purpose for a Celtic language. Despite the fact that the book of the UBO, University of Western Brittany, containing his article – the acts book of the first congress dedicated to the Celts and the Iberian Peninsula ,Les Celtes et la Péninsule Ibérique , in France, Brittany -, it was distributed to all the libraries of the universities of the so-called Celtic Countries.
It should be remembered that in 1997 Eulogio Losada Badía had demonstrated that the Tartessian alphabet, or western Iberian, long before Greek and Phoenician, and related in typology to Egyptian and Aegean linear writing, was an alphabet created to note a Celtic language. – ignoring, no doubt by mistake, J. T. Koch, this circumstance, although the book of the UBO, University of Western Brittany, containing the proceedings of the first and only congress held in France (in Britain) dedicated to the Celts of the Iberian Peninsula:Les Celtes et la Péninsule Ibérique, Actes du Colloque international (Brest, 6-7-8 novembre 1997), was widely distributed in university libraries in Celtic countries-.
[…] Gómez Moreno,” says Eulogio Losada Badía, “years after having indicated “It has characters of maximum probability […] to admit that the Iberian alphabets were born in Andalusia, as a consequence of the Tartessian civilization, in a remote time, but inaccurate at present […]….] […] because its graphic type places it close to the Cretans and Cypriots and before the Phoenicians [Miscellaneous, 28]” – dated the Tartessian alphabet to the end of the second millennium BC, at least.
[And, in turn, Eulogio Losada Badía, analyzing] “the very nature of the language for which the first Iberian writing was created by the Tartessian area” [and, among other things, long to enumerate, developed by him along 45 dense pages (201, 246)], “The bivalent essence of the graphemes with which the dental and guttural occlusives or veils are transcribed, in the Iberian languages”, [had determined with solid and documented argumentation, the Celtic nature of the language of the Hispanic Atlantic]:
“Confirming the coherence of our thesis on the Celtic origins of the system, which the Iberian alphabet seems to reveal to us, the phonetic arguments invoked in the present work, render celtic paternity at least highly reliable “.
MY PROMPTEMA TATERTARO [“TARTARO”] / TARTARES / [T] ARTA[B]RI / TARTESOSIN CLASSIC AND EPIGRAPHIC SOURCES What do you think this quote from Plinio means? “Around the Promontorio Nerio [also called by Mela ‘Promunturium Celticum’, “Fisterra”] live the Celtics [‘Cognómine Nerii” – like Tasiono, by casuality-] who are relatives [“singeneis”] of those who live on the fringes of [Guadi]Ana” [Plinio]. It is true that Plinio does not explain to us the good direction – if it is from below ‘S’ to above ‘N’, or, with less logic, if it comes by sea from the Mediterranean “E” > “W”, as by personal needs suggest some, – and I don’t wont to quote here J. T. Koch – , or, if this direction is from North to South, as would be logical. But he does it, no doubt, Strabo when saying: “The country Tartessida that nowadays the Turdulos inhabit” Strabo 3, 2, 11 -. And he also tells us that “[…] the Turdulos that inhabit today the country Tartesida are relatives of the Nerios“, in Strabo 3. 3. 5. And What do you think he is saying with this ? Since you already know it, I’ll tell you: the principle that makes Villa Velha’s inhabitants are older than those of Villa nova, makes Turduli Veteris and their northern relatives, the Nerios, older. In other words, sources echo a tradition: those from the north have set up in the south – as they have done several times throughout history, because, fortunately, History repeats itself – a commercial base – which would then conquer the Phoenicians -. Kaltia/Galtia set up a base in Tartessos, in the Ria de Huelva, to sell their Bronze weapons. This is what, I think, documents the stele of the Noble Nerio of Kaltia, Tasiono – who for true when he says that he is an Ari, “Noble”, of Galtia or Kaltia -due to the bivalence of the sign Ka/Ga-, he means he is a noble -as I always explain it, because the voice Ari, in Old Common Celtic, and in Indo European, means “noble”, without any racial nuance-. WARNING Ari, “noble”, has NO RACIAL meaning . Since the year 1000 BC on, the export of arms would be Iron, as shown by the excavation of the outer port of Corogne. [A. P] / Pois já que o sabeis vou-vo-lo a dizer : o princípio que faz que os de Villa Velha sejam mais antigos que os de Villa nova, faz que os Turduli Veteris e seus parentes do norte os Nerios, sejam mais antigos. Dito de outro modo, seguramente, os do norte montaram no sul – como fizeram várias vezes ao longo da História, pois felizmente esta se repete- , uma base comercial – que depois conquistariam os fenicios-. Montaram uma base em Tartessos, na Ria de Huelva, para vender suas armas de Bronze. Isto e o que, penso, documenta a estela do Nobre Nerio da Kaltia, Tasiono – quem por verdadeiro quando diz que é um Ari, “Nobre”, da Galtia ou Kaltia, pela bivalença do signo Ka/Ga, quer dizer, como o explico sempre, que a voz Ari, em Celta Antigo Comum, e em Indoeuropeo, significa “nobre”, sem nenhum matiz racial. AVISO Ari, “nobre”, NÃO TEM NENHUM MATÍZ RACIAL. A exportação de armas seria de Ferro, como mostra a excavación do Porto Exterior de Crunha, a partir do ano 1000 a. C. [A. P.] / Pois xa que o sabedes vóuvolo a dicir : o principio que fai que os de Villa Vella sexan máis antigos que os de Villa nova, fai que os Turduli Veteris e seus parentes do norte os Nerios, sexan máis antigos. Dito doutro modo, os do norte montaron no sur – como fixeron varias veces ao longo da Historia, pois felizmente esta se repite- .unha base comercial – que despois conquistarían os fenicios-. Montaron unha base en Tartessos, na Ría de Huelva, para vender súas armas de Bronce. Isto e o que documenta a estela do Nobre Nerio da Kaltia ou Galtia – pola bivalencia Ka/Ga, do signo- chamado Tasiono – quen por certo cando di que é un Ari, “Nobre”, da Galtia ou Kaltia, quere dicir, como sempre o aviso, que a voz Ari, en Celta Antigo Común, e en Indoeuropeo, significa “nobre”, sen ningún matiz ou connotación racial. AVISO A BIRRASMENZACES, Ari, “nobre”, NON TEN NINGÚN MATÍZ RACIAL!!! Esta a exportación de armas xa sería de Ferro, como, seguramente, mostra a excavación do Porto Exterior de Crunha, a partir do ano 1000 a.C [A. P.]
And this ancient origin of the Hispanic alphabet – undoubtedly the first alphabet created in Europe, to annotate the Celtic language [ancient common Celtic] -,
excludes precisely -let us say now, coming to light- to maintain that the original population of Ireland was not Celtic; and excludes to maintain – as by personal comparative needs hold some, without any proof-, that the Celtic language arrived at a later moment. / Ending Addecet
“Los subregistros onomásticos de Gallaecia son, mientras no haya datos históricos en contra, documento real, no marginal, de la(s) lengua(s) de los galaicos. La profundidad prehistórica del material de todos estos subregistros se mueve entre la mucha que por fuerza debe tener la hidronimia y, en el otro extremo, que las modas puedan haber renovado la antroponimia con caída en desuso de lo antiguo y entrada de lo foráneo. En principio, el grueso de teonimia, etnonimia y toponimia puede ser, debe ser, de notable antigüedad y arraigo. Una aportación numérica y cualitativamente significativa de nombres prerromanos en tiempo de romanización necesita prueba, no presunción. De aportaciones puntuales nada hay que discutir y es obvio que, dadas sus procedencias obligadas, sean todas o la mayoría de corte céltico. Lo indoeuropeo, con lo céltico como componente principal, está fuera de duda en todos los subregistros. […]” J.J. Moralejo Álvarez , “Gallaecia, Célticos y Onomástica” (2011), 57-58
[…] [-as described by authors as Eulogio Losada Badia], who analyzed river names, place names, deity names, and other forms, and carried with them asocial, political, andreligiousorganizational structure.
They then migrated to Britain, moving into the Continent through the ice-free English Channel -speaking a Common Atlantic Ancient Celtic? language […] [Ancient Celtic, yes, also the cradle of the Indo-European], but this is another story …-.
ex J. T. Koch map “A Case for Tartessian as a Celtic Language
This was the ‘Great Migration of the Celts’ as our present knowledge in population dynamics demonstrates.
Bantam Press ( Sept. 12, 2006) “Instead he reveals that almost the entire mitochondrial DNA (DNA passed down from the females’ genes) in England is from the Ibero-Celtic peoples that arrived in Britain 10 000 years ago and is fundamentally the same as that in Scotland, Wales and Ireland. ‘Even if the entire population of Jutes, Angles and Saxons arrived in Britain, that that could have exterminated all of the Britons, with their centuries of experience of Roman military tactics. Even if they had managed to kill all the men they would not have managed to kill all the women and hence how the DNA proves this. The overwhelming majority of the matrilineal descent of the people in England has stayed constant for ten thousand years, from the original inhabitants of Britain, who were there 8000 years before the Anglo-Saxons settled in what is now England. As Sykes clearly states “On our maternal side almost all of us are Celts” The matrilineal history of the Isles is both ancient and continuous. I see no reason at all from the results why many of our maternal lineages should not go right through the millennia to the very first Paleolithic and Mesolithic settlers who reached our islands around 10 000 years ago. The average settlement dates of 8000 years ago fits in with this.‘” inGary’s review of Blood of the Isles
I wish to warn readers of this post on the superposition of the newly arrived peoples – in the so-called Bask Country: the Old Celtic lands of the Vardulos, Caristios, Autrigones, etc. -, in a fully historical epoch [VI-IV BC], speaking an An-Indo-European language, i.e. alien to Europe: The Basque Language
Cf., ut supra, Xaverio Ballester, “LENGUAS ANINDOEUROPEAS DE HISPANIA ¿ANTIGUAS O RECIENTES?” PalHisp 18, 2018, 13-24
This long journey across land and sea also signaled the dissemination beyond the Galizan epicenter
Burgarios. Cup and rings, possibly imitating the springs of water, in a suboreal climate (3710 to 5660 years BP), warmer and drier than the current one in ¨Galice. This motives in a sacred place of communication between this world and the Beyond could be used to impetrate the rain too.
of such elements as the cup and rings
Often a large slab of stone is taken away from the table of offerings of the Final Neolithic, with “cup and rings” petroglyphs for building the “headstone” of a dolmen. Then, in the hole left by the extracted stone, it is reproduced, again, with care, the same motives previously represented. Possibly, as noted, simulate waves of water springs, indicating places of passage to the Other World. What does that mean? That those motives allow [to the souls, too], in some way, the communication between this world and *OMORICA “[the Beyond] under the sea”.
and labyrinth petroglyphs
*OMORICA is The Beyond under the land and under the sea. Fish are therefore, stricto sensu, inhabitants of * Omorica, the Beyond, the Other World, the place where the Mourindade, “elfin beings of Omorica ” lives, a paradise reserved for the souls of the dead, where no living being can access. For this reason, it is necessary to seal the access doors connecting the world of the living and the dead. The labyrinth –As our promptema shows-, from the Neolithic to the present day, the function of sealing the entrance. Thus, the Nordic fishermen of today build mazes with ephemeral stones, walking inside them, thinking that it helps to navigate safely: Cf http://www.labyrinthos.net/Gotland%20Trojaborgs.pdf
The legends of the arrival across the ocean from Brigantia of the Gaels to Ireland,
“Clíodhna NÍ LIONÁIN “LEABHAR GABHÁLA ÉRENN – THE CONSTRUCTION UTILISATION, AND APROPIATION OF AN IRISH ORIGIN MYTH”. [ XIV Comhdháil Idirnáisiúnta sa Leann Ceilteach. Maigh Nuad (2011): “The Irish origin myths as spoused by the Leabhar Gabhála Érenn speak of an illustrious past, with the Gaels coming from afar to settle in Ireland where they established a long and noble royal lineage. Some have said that it is relatively inevitable that an island people would look to overseas migration to explain the peopling of their land. However, while origin myths may contain long-forgotten memories of a distant past, and the allusions to sea-links connecting Ireland and Iberia are indeed tantalizing, the origin myths recorded in early Irish literature are more revealing of the contemporary culture of those who recorded and created this mythical narrative, These origin myths have subsequently been used, manipulated and appropriated not only in Ireland, but also in Iberia and the British Isles, Showing how much narratives can be utilized in both the definition and promotion of nationhood and independents sovereignty, but also in the assertion of dominion and control over a colonized people. The development, use, appropriation and manipulation of the LGE narrative reveals the may layers of complicated negotiation of meaning behind the formation and transmission of cultural objects, in this case, legends.” Excuse me, dear Clíodhna, but in conspectu Sancta Chronologia, I would say that the thing is rather the other way around. Perhaps it would be advisable to listen to what the founding myths are trying to tell us! Cf. here exA. Pena & A. Erias. It would be convenient an explanation .
The Gaels’ story tells that Íth, having contemplated Ireland from the top of the tower of Breogán, sailed to the island to confirm his discovery. Upon arrival, he was well received by the natives – a supernatural race, the Túatha de Danann-; but something did not go well .
In Irish and Scottish Medieval myth, Goídel Glas (Latinised as Gathelus) is the creator of the Goidelic languages and the eponymous ancestor of the Gaels
Some nobles, apprehensive of his true intentions, attacked him with treachery, and killed him. Returning his badly wounded companions, to Brigantia with his corpse.
Departure of the Milesians from the Tower of Brigantia. Camilo Díaz Baliño. Museo de Bellas Artes de A Coruña. “We have already spoken blandly about these relatively modern legends” – says something misguided, H. D’Arbois de Juvainville – “whose origin has nothing popular but come from a false erudition. We shall now refer to the ancient account where the Celtic race is said to have left the land of the dead to settle in the land which it still occupies today. The oldest version of this legend dates back to the 11th century, and was preserved by the ‘Book of Conquests’. There we see that a certain Bregóm [Breogán], son, or grandfather of Milé, built a tower in Spain […] [Gallaecia, Northwest of Spain] or in the country of the dead. This tower was called the Tower of Bre [o] gón, and constitutes a second edition of the tower of Conann that had sung Eochaid ua Flainn in the Xth century, and in whose assent the descendants of the mythical Nemed, who had gone to fight against the god of the dead, began by being winners to end up perishing in number of 60,000. It is similar to the tower that Kronos, god of the dead; occupies the Island of the Blessed, which had been sung by Pindar in the fifth century BC Breogán had a son named Íth, who contemplated the horizon from the top of the paternal fortress during a beautiful winter night, sighted in the distance the coast of Ireland. From the eleventh century the Irish scholars had converted Bre [o] gón into a city of Spain, the old Brigantia, today Braganza [- says D’Arbois, wrongly, because Brigantia and its tower correspond today, no doubt, to Corogne, Galice, and its Brigantia Tower or Tower of Hercules]. It is clear that to see Ireland from there, it is necessary to have very good eyesight.
And so, to avenge his death, The Milesians, the sons of his uncle, Míl Espáine, left Brigantia to conquer the island. “It was a Thursday – narrates Rolleston following the Book Of The Invasions Of Ireland- , the first of May, and the seventeenth day of the moon, when the sons of Miled arrived in Ireland
The Milesians of Brigantia were commanded by thirty-six captains […] [all of them, as is mandatory, nobles], each one with his own boat, with his own family and with his own vassals.
When [the Gaels Milesians] came to Ireland, they marched on Tara, the royal seat, to reclaim the kingdom. On the way, they were greeted by three women: Bamba, Flodla and Eriú, queens and wives of the three kings of Ireland. Each woman greeted the Milesians and told them that her name was the name by which the country was known. And they asked him to keep it that way if they were victorious in battle. One of the Milesians Amergin promised them that this would be done. Both sides agreed that the Milesios had to re-embark on their ships and fend off a distance of nine waves from the coast so that the Thuata Danann could have an opportunity to mobilize their forces. But when the Milesians were “beyond nine waves,” the Druids of the Túatha Give Danann, conjured up a fierce storm.
It is said that during the voyage two members of the expedition perished. Donn, one of the sons of Miled, after climbing the main mast to see the coast of Ireland, fell into the sea and drowned.
La rencontre des Gaëls [= Galegos, de Brigantia] avec les trois reines d´Irlande est un rituel de prise de posesión d´une terre” […] “Dans leur marche vers Tara, les Gaëls rencontrent les trois déesses éponymes du pays: Bamba, Fotla y Eriu Seule Eriu leur souhaite bonnes possession de leurs nouvelle terre. En échange de sa protection, elle leur demande cependant un engagement: que l´île porte désormais son nom. Amorgen y consent; cést pourquoi l´Irlande s´appelle, depuis ce jour-lá, Erin, du nom de la déesse Eriu. “Les fils de Mil s´entretinrent avec Bamba à Siab Mis. Elle leur dit: “Si c’est pour vous emparer de l´Irlande que vous êtes venus, vous n´êtes pas venus sous un bon signe”. “C´est par nécessite”, dit Amorgen au genou blanc, le poète. “Faites-moi un don”, dit-elle. “Quel don?” dirent-ils. “Que mon nom soit donné à cette île” dit-elle. “Quel est ton nom?, dirent-ils. “Bamba“, dit-elle. “Que ce soit un nom de l´île”, dit Amorgen. Ils s´entretinrent avec Fotla à Eblinne. Elle leur parla de la même manière et elle désira que son nom fût donné à l´île. Amorgen lui dit: ” Que Fotla soit un nom de l´île”. Ils s´entretinrent avec Eriu à Uisnech. Elle leur dit: “ô guerriers, soyez les bienvenus. Il y a longtemps que les prophètes ont prédit votre venue. Cette île sera vôtre à tout jamais. Et à lest du monde il n`y aura pas d´île meilleure. Nulle race n´y sera plus nombreuse que la votre”. “C´est bien”, dit Amorgen, “la prophétie est bonne”. “Faites-moi un don, ô fils de Mil et enfants de Bregon“, dit-elle, “que nom soit donné á cette île”. “Que ce soit son principal nom”, dit Amorgen” Avant de prendre possession de l´île, il faut livrer bataille. Les Gaëls sont vainqueurs et le Tuatha s´inclinent, non sans avoir durement négocie leur retraite. Le pays sera désormais équitablement divisé, non point sur le mode humain, mais sur le mode mythique: Les Gaëls occuperont le pays en surface, et les Tuatha se répartiront le “Sidh”, c’est à -dire le monde du Dessus: les tumuli, cairns, lacs et autres lieux magiques dont est truffées l’Irlande. C´est ainsi que l´Irlande fut partagée entre les dieux et les hommes” Marcel BRASSEUR, kind epistolary communication. In this portentous plot, Skena, the wife of the poet Amergin, must perish, because the gael milesian, must be free, to stage her marriage with the Mother Goddess and take possession of the Island. In this portentous plot, Skena, the wife of the Gael Milesian poet Amergin, must perish, because he must be free, to stage her marriage with the Mother Goddess and take possession of the Island Cf A. Pena Treba y Territorium (2004: 181-2)
The other victim was Skena, the wife of the poet Amergin, the son of Miled, who also perished on the sea. The Milesians buried her when they took the land, and called the place Inverskena, ‘behind her’; this was the old name of the Kennare River in County Kerry. Cf. “The Comming of the Milesians” T. W. Rolleston, Myths Of The Celtic Race. /End Addenda
The Tower of Nennius. In Nennius’s account, Mile’s three sons (Don, Breoga and Amergin), after arriving with thirty boats each, and in each boat thirty men and their wives, remained in a year in Ireland, and then he saw, in the middle of the sea, a glass tower, and in it, something like men, almost homines, [the dead], of which they did not get an answer. After a year of preparations they set out to attack the Tower, one ship wrecked with thirty men and thirty women, the rest reach the shore that surrounds the Tower, then the sea rises above them, swallowing them. The population of Ireland descends from the castaways of the boat that did not reach the tower.
And the foundation in memory of the abandoned home [Galtia / Kaltia it is the documented name of Galice in Bronze Age], by the Gall-aecian Amergin, of Dun na Gall, Donegal, the dun, briga, “hillfort” or “castro” of the Gall [-aecos]
A common political order and organization was also spread out, superimposed on the local differences, establishing a joint “public and private common law” consuetam ratione ruling the treba or toudo [túath]
A common political order and organization were also spread out, superimposed on the local differences, establishing a joint “public and private common law” consuetam ratione rulingthe treba or toudo [túath] – [CENTER: Paleo Christian stela of the Provincial Archaeological Museum of Oviedo. Ca. 350 d C, found in 1932 by Venancio Pérez y Pérez, “Venancio da Corredoira”, in the place of Corredoira, Vegadeo Gallaecia, Conventus Asturum. Niger, son of Clutoso, of Cariaca [of the House] of the prince of the Albions of sixty-five years. Here it is ]-. // For some, it was found by Arturo Barcia Garcia 1933 in A Corredoira, in the town of A Veiga; for many others – I remember the photo of the Stela with the discoverer – it was found by Venancio Perez Perez, called Venancio da Corredoira. Write 04 June 2007 Juan José Pardo y Pérez Sanjulián” in riadeleo.com ” Throughout history, and still today, most learned scholars have not been able to identify the identity of the prehistoric inhabitants of the Suaron Valley; Egovarros (Egovarri Namarini, according to Pliny), Cybarcos, Pésicos, Albiones… The first testimony, discovered so far, that proves the existence of some of these villages, and more important, of the first known and named characters, between the Porcía and Eo river beds, is the slate plaque called “Estela de Nicer”, today in the “Provincial Archaeological Museum of Oviedo”, found in 1932 by Venancio Pérez y Pérez (Venancio da Corredoira), while he was working, in a farm in A Corredoira. The inscription, according to Andrés Pena Graña, is headed by a Chrismon, in this case between a drawing of the sun and another of the moon, which are common substitutes in Alpha and Omega Christology. Chrismon XP, which crowns the epigraph, is Christian and cannot be earlier than 314. It actually corresponds to a very advanced moment in the 4th century, if not already in the 5th century. Different researchers and archaeologists have studied this tombstone in order to interpret its inscriptions, and although not unanimously, it is accepted that it should be read as follows: XP [Chrismon,] NICER CLUTOSI [Nicer son of Clutosus ] “)” CARIACA [Cariaca] PRINCIPIS ALBIONUM [(from the House of) the Prince of Albion] AN (NORUM) [years old] LXXV [seventy-five] HIC S(ITUS) EST [Here he is]. Its current translation into Spanish would be: ” HERE LIES NICER, SON OF CLUTOSUS, OF THE CASTRO CARIACA, PRINCE OF THE ALBIONS, AGED SEVENTY-FIVE ” (The title of Prince of Albion corresponds to Clutosus.) “
and ruling thebriga, “hill fort”, dun, castellum, “castro”,
A common political order and organization was also spread out, superimposed on the local differences, establishing a joint “public and private common law” consuetam ratione ruling the treba or toudo [túath] and ruling the briga, “hill fort”, dun, castellum, “castro”,
a common military organization [reges, ari, ambactos, ikurigos, coroneros, etc.],
making the Celtic Civilization the true catalyzer for the creation of Europe.
The Celtic Civilization the true catalyzer for the creation of Europe
The Celts Otto Hermann Frey, Venceslas Kruta. In 1991 we published (Concello de Narón Ed.) thefirst volume of the Historia de Narón. 24 years – and an obscurantist abyss – mediates between:
A) the year 1991 when, opening in the Palazzo Grassi of the Grand Canal in Venice -24 March to 8 December- the exhibition I Celti, la Prima Europa, “The Celts, The First Europe”, one of the curators, Venceslás Kruta, paid deep tribute to “the Celtic Civilization, First Constructor of Europe”
B) and the year 2015, when a curator, opening on September 24, the great exhibition at the British Museum, Celts, Art and Identity [open until January 31, 2016], explained to the BBC: “The Celts do not exist , they are a construct of the archaeologists, a brand image, like Coca-Cola, or like Volkswagen”.
In the History of Narón I, II, III, studying in the long duration the genesis and the evolution of a Galician region: the Terra of Trasancos, we completed the idea and old project of the disappeared Seminary of Galician Studies, demonstrating, in the cradle of system, on the one hand, Galiza’s fully Celtic-Atlantic character – something by then denied by our University – and, on the other, that the Celts, of Insular and Continental Europe, far from being an invented brand image, share -all of them-, a Common Institutional Reality -effective like the Wolkswagen engines-and solid like the bottles of Coca-Cola-: The Celtic Common Law/ End Addecet.
I would like to warn the audience that, at least in 1991, these papers sounded like something new. Perhaps not so much at this stage when scientists from different fields are supporting this view.
Before, during and after Roman rule, the Northwest of Atlantic Iberia, Gallaecia, experienced a common Celtic and ‘Indoeuropean’ territorial organization, which still stayed alive until very late in the Middle Ages.
Separated in Gallaeciae from the adfines, “neighbors”, by termini, or mounds, with a Stele, slab or vertical stone column, that often serves as a tombstone and as a landmark and usually has a commemorative inscription or relief design like this chalcolithic one with a statue of the eponymous founder, in which they wrote in the Lower Empire: “Here lies [my ancestor] Latrono, Celtiato Son”,
LATRON/VS . CELTI/ATI. FILIVS/ HIC SITUS EST. Here lies [my ancestor] Latrono, Celtiati Son-1º LATRONUS “Struggle, Brave, Determined, Willing (for battle)” [surely of the [old Irish] OIr. Lathar involving the Idea of “disposition [for combat],” n. o-stem <* lāθ (e) r <* lāθ (e) rom: acc. sg., dat. sg. lathur [lathar] (McCone, 2011) – 2nd [this second option yields before the previous] lat. Later-onus “Who [by the security that he inspires] walks beside the [noble or the king]”. [The strenuous Látronus, has nothing to do with a “friend of what belongs or corresponds to another”, -as with little success, by ignoring the institutional importance of the plot, Francisco Fariña Busto maintains-, CELTIATI FILIVS, “Son of Celtiato”; HIC SITUS EST “Here lies”. No doubt a Galician nobleman whose family held, since immemorial time, the continuous secular possession of the túath, toudo or treba [“Noble House”] of the Quarquerni, group belonging to the Galaicos Brácaros, demarcated by this menhir-statue, he was the one who orders to engrave this epigraph, in the Lower Empire, possibly in fourth century AD- on the old chalcolithic founding tomb, ca . 3400 BCE. He wanted to vindicate, in writing, the affiliation of the tumuli [“mámoa”] to the eponymous founder of his prosapia [Pena Granha] and that this one was son, in its turn, of the eponymous founder of all the trebas or toudos [thúatha] of Kaltia/Galtia [Ka/Ga, and with an epenthetic “i”, Galitia > Galiza “Galice”.
or landmarks called in our Celtic language carneiros, coiras (Old Irish Cora; Corn. Cored, cf. VENDRYÈS sub vocabulocora 1987), etc.
Marco do Vento Winds Landmark. Cerdedo. Calros Solla
The Political Territorial Organization of Gallaeciae described in the ancient sources with Celtic ethnonyms, “names of tribes”, knew pre-roman names of Treba and Toudo [Thúat].
Both words define a common institutional system, a “Celtic princedom” – more appropriate than the term “Celtic chiefdom”. (ARNOLD & GIBSON, 1995)
Unveiling the secrets of the magnificent but, less and less, mysterious Stonehenge
Since the dawn of the Bronze Age Celtic Europe is a mosaic of identical autonomous political territories we commonly call tribes and Romans called civitates/populi.
Unveiling the secrets of the magnificent but, less and less, mysterious Stonehenge
Sharing a common structure, these tribes – as is Gallaecia– are known either in Europe (Pena 1992; Karl 2002) with words of domestic sovereignty: TREBA, [TRIFU, TRIBE, etc.] and TOUDO [ TÚATH, TEUTA, TOUTO, etc.] with a term alluding to the people, state or nation.
As in Ireland VV. AA. Pena & Evans [Bangor, Gales (2019)]. As in Ireland (McCone; Gibson; Byrne), Wales (Hubert, 436-437); Scotland (A. Dogshon), continental Europe (Wells; Halselgrove, 12-29), and the Nordic countries (Kristiansen, 241-280), the ancient Gallaecia configured itself as a succession of political territories that probably emerged at an early stage. In Treba y Territorium (USC 2004), in a long term study (1987-2010) of a Galician shrine in Narón (Northwest Galiza), this author notes a Neolithic origin of the Treba.
As in Ireland -McCone (1990); Gibson (1995); Byrne (1971)-, Wales (Hubert), Scotland (A. Dogshon), continental Europe (Wens; Halselgrove) and the Nordic countries (Kristiansen), the ancient Gallaecia configured itself as a succession of political territories that probably emerged at an early stage. InTreba y Territorium (USC 2004), in a long term study (1987-2010) of a Galician shrine in Narão (Northwest Galiza), this author notes a Neolithic origin of the Treba 
In 1941 Marc Bloch noted rural areas in primitive Europe ruled by hereditary princes and a common, well-developed institutional framework.
He later identified common Indo-European Celtic and Germanic institutions, with their service obligations and hierarchical relationship often called feudal, tracking them as far back as the second millennium BCE.
“There is sufficient evidence”- said Stuart Piggot “to suggest that the model of society demanded by Bloch may, in fact, be very archaic and characteristic of barbarian Europe”. Piggot (1965) , 259-260
“The fundamental building block of the political system in Early Christian Ireland was the Túath, led by the king, “rí” or “rí túaithe”
In the epigraphic record [Pena (1991; 1992)] of the Northwest’s voice TREB [A] also appears in Gallaecia Bracarense in a cruciform landmark terminalis pointing border of Obili [anci?]: TERM [MINVS] TREB [AE] OBILI [ANCORUM? [Sanfins; Valpaços, Chaves (Portugal)]. “Hubert assinala que Gales conheceu a palavra TREBA para o Teritorio político, dantes de que quatro reinos se repartissem o país subdividido em distritos chamados Can/tref. [-Cf. compar. as vozes CONTREBIA (Celtiberia) e CONTRIBUTI [Interim Oscenses et Calagurritani qui erant cum oscensibus contributi –Caesar BC 1, 60-], assinalando confederação ; as vozes ATREBATESe ATTRIBUTI expressando a anexão por conquista de umas tribos a outra à que pagam tributo censum; lat. AT/TRIBUERE, assim: insulae Rhodis attributae = “ilhas anexadas a Rodas”-]. Our Political Territory was named in Galician and Lusitanian language TREBA. The voice, from the domestic sovereignty, means “House,” Shire”,” Political Territory “. Pliny mentions the Arroni or Arrotrebae, this is Arros or County Arrós. And the voice Treba is mentioned twice -among the epithets undoubtedly intensify the role of Matres – in an inscription found in Cabeço das Fraguas, Portugal, written in late Vulgar Latin, infiltrated with the substrate of the Lusitanian-Galician language. Towards the end of the registration, in dat. s. TREBARUNE [psb. determinant “of the Treba” + determined “The Moon in Ascension” (r / l) – Run[a]e “Luna”, and, again, in REVE TR[EBARUNA?] – psb. cf. Old Irish Ré, “moon”; Re-ve “The moon in ascension” lán na ré ‘The full moon’- TREBA-RUNA R/l possibly “Tribe Moon”], and to the beginning of the inscription in TREBO-PALA, referring no doubt this time to an “altar stone”, meaning the ancient IE voice pala “stone”, (Old Irishfail) of the tribe in terms of sacred geography. The altar stone also appears as TOUDO-PALA (* TEWTO-PALA, “Túatha Fáil” ) or CROUGIN-TOUDADIGO [CROUGIN/ cf cruachan “stone altar” * TOUDADIGO (as Teutates), “of the Túath”].
There is considerable dispute as to whether the ‘túath’ represented a tribe […]there was no ethnic, linguistic, or cultural division, but it did, represent a political unit, and one on a larger scale than that of the kin-group. Belonging to a túath[…] [–as in Galiza today-] was an important concept in Early Christian Ireland, and in that sense the túath can be considered a tribe”. In The Origins of Early Christian Ireland (1992), 141
In Galicia, as in Ireland, a king was the head of the Trebas, until the early thirteenth century, when after the King of Galicia, Petrus Arteiru confirms as Rex of [the Terra of] Melide the chronological clauses of a diploma.
However, in the Latin Gallaecia epigraphic record, the rejection of Rome towards this institution, are not recorded kings (heretics), but princes:
Right. Paleo-Christian stele of the Provincial Archaeological Museum of Oviedo. AC. 350 AD, found in 1932 by Venancio Pérez and Pérez (Venancio da Corredoira, in the place of Corredoira, Vegadeo. “Niger, son of Clutoso, of [hillfort] Cariaca prince [or, more likely, being in latin genitive of singular principis ” of (the House) of the prince] of the ALBIONES . Sixty-five years old. Here he lies. Warning. In a copy, or replica, supposedly faithful, of this stele taken to the City of Culture, Santiago de Compostela, for the exhibition Galicia Pétrea disappeared, no doubt by carelessness [- and we do not say that by personal needs of anybody-], the apical end of the Greek letter P ‘Rho’ – in Crhismón XP– This end of the Greek letter Rho “P”, is opened in the epigraphy of the time of the emperor Magnencio – 350 AD-. Once again another one of our paleochristian stelae is invisible. Claiming my right to be wrong, there is something very strange about the Niger stela: the lack of a funerary formula. [I do not care if you reward a trileiro for dressing him up in a false authority] Who is pulling a bunny out of his hat – Are they really paying for that? – and saying to us ” because I’ m worth it ” – ” That funerary formula [clause] is not Christian”. There are no atheist funerary stelae, epigraphed or not. A funerary formula is required in the epigraphs of the pre-Christian Galician stelae Dis Manibus Sacrum “consecrated to The Manes Gods”, which Sims-Williams translates ” To The Spirit Of The Departed [The Dead], Laribus Vialibus… with the aroma of the journey, “ánimas benditas” and “petos de animas”, are funeral formulas, all of course “pagan”. So Why doesn’t there exist in the Niger stelae, a funerary pagan ‘formula’, can you imagine? There is no such thing as a funeral formula, as it is now being replaced, in an officially Christian Galicia, by a Chrismon.
“Nicer Clutosi Principis Albionum”; “Caisaros Ceccig(um) Pr(inceps?) Arcailo(rum)”; “(Ve)cius Verobli f princeps (Coporum).
The Treba/Toudo is built, up to our days, in immarchable, always thriving, powerful geographical concept: the County or ‘Bisbarra’ [, 24-45; á, 178-185; 266-267]. As in Galicia, in Ireland D. A. Binchy also points out ‘depending on the amount of [Trebas,] familiar territories that each one has under his control’, three basic categories of kings or princes: […] Críth Gablag (104-105), distinguishes to Rí Benn literally “King of Head”, – is Benn possibly, Penn’s lenition, “head (, rock)”, cf. my own’s last name Pena, the Anglo-Saxon nickname Penn, the Breton Pennaod, etc.], which would be ‘O Cabo’, the visible head of a single Treba; Rí Túath, “the King, of a single Túath or Toudo“, which we call Principis de Terra. Rí Túaithe is subordinated to Rí Buiden “Rei de Bandas, Mesnadas, Hostes”, also called Rí Túatha, “Rei de Toudos“, or Ruiri “King of Kings”, we call him Dux or Comes (sive Comite). And above these Duces and Comites of various lands, is the Rí Ruirech, the primus inter pares, coincident figure with the maior inter comites or maior comite de Gallaecia, ‘major count of Galicia’, “maior inter eos [comites], comes dominus Petrus Foilat”, and the Galician’s Lower Middle Age Adiantado Mór in [b, 24-234].
Until the end of twelfth century, in the clauses of medieval parchment documents, the head (= Tanaiste) of every noble Galician clan or family, retains not only his title of prince of terra, but also he retains possession of the terra –treba, toudo, ciuitas, populus-with the same territorial extent and boundaries that had in the Iron Age.
breve cláusula da lousinha, psbl. em dat. s. Reve Trasanciuge[psblm. mellor lectio que psblm, Trasanciange (Trasancian+i+ca) Reve [Tema en “a”, seguramente um epíteto da Mater, Reba [b/v] “Raising Moon, Ascensión da Lúa”]; a lousinha, por min achada en Santa Comba, Covas Ferrol, contém, sem dúvida, o nome de, e dos, Trasancos. O nome da nosa Terra: Trasancos é [en clave de PCP, Paradigma de Continuidade Paleolítica] moi antigo, invariable nas linguas indoeuropeas. Voz, problm. do Celta Antigo Común, provinte das rozas e decruas para cultivar dos nosos primeiros agricultores. En clave de Xeografía Mítica Celta , pasaría seguramente a Tartares [reduplicación de *trs, cf, a.irl. tart, “sede”], e en Xeografía Sagrada celta e indoeuropea [Homero, Hesíodo, Estesícoro] como imaxe do Tártaro: ‘Monasterio [S. Martiño] de Iuvia vocitato Tartares” ; orixinando posiblemente os nosos modernos topónimos Inferniño ou Lamas do Inferno [onde hoxe está Alcampo]. Trasancos: psb. , ut supra demonstravimus, radical *Ters+ ancos [sendo -ancos o sufixo das contiguas galaicas trebas/toudos de, e dos, Nem-ancos; Bes-ancos; Tras-ancos; Lapati-ancos, etc.,] *ters-, Radical de Trasancos, *Ters+ an+i+cos psvl. “os que queimam o monte para cultivar” [Pokorny 1078 (1870/47)] *ters-, idg., V., Sb.: nhd. trocknen, verdorren, dürsten, Durst; ne. dry (V.), thirst (N.); RB.: ind., iran., arm., gr., alb., ital., kelt., germ.; Hw.: s. *tr̥su-, *tr̥si̯ā, *tr̥sto-; W.: gr. τέρσεσθαι (térsesthai), V., trocken werden; W.: gr. τερσαίνειν (tersaínein), V., trocken machen, abtrocknen, abwischen; W.: s. gr. τρασιά (trasiá), tarsim̥ (tarsiá), F., Darre, Flechtwerk zum Trocknen; W.: s. lat. terra, F., Land, Erdboden; vgl. ae. fel-terr-e, sw. F. (n), Erdgalle (eine Pflanze); W.: lat. torrēre, V., dörren, braten, backen, rösten, sengen, versengen, entzünden; […] germ. *þarzjan , sw. V., trocknen, dörren; an. þerr-a, sw. V. (1), trocknen; W.: germ. *þarzjan, sw. V., trocknen, dörren; a.irl Tart “sede”. Abaixo esquerda epígrafe do Nerio da Kaltia, Tasionos, que se finou entre os conios, en Tartessos onde por queimar o monte quedarão sem portos – [ como Tartares, Tártaro, etc]. Sen dúbida o Nerio Tasionos achabase en Tartessos entre a família e como na sua propia casa, pois como di Estrabón en 3,3,5 : “Ao redor do Promontorio Nerio [O cabo Finisterre] viven os Célticos QUE SON PARENTES DOS QUE VIVEN ÁS BEIRAS DO RIO GUADIANA“.
TERRA DE TRASANCOS
A Galician Treba of the Iron Age, such as Terra de Trasancos, could have 60, 80 or 120 hillforts.
Lámina B) As shown in the drawing of J. R. Fernández Villares [ex A. Pena, Narón I (1992)], in the period known as the castros, between Bronze Age and the year 500 A. D., the Celtic-Galician farmers, vassals of the lord, lived within the walls. However, they developed their social activities and agricultural economy outside, in the cultivated lands and pastures laid out in an exterior economic space demarcated by well-preserved boundaries and m
Each fort had its own little economic territory and jurisdiction (over 1.5 km radius), with pastures, farmlands, forests, and waterways.
All perfectly bounded de succo, “furrowed by the plow”, setting up an economic jurisdiction of a Noble House (Domus = fine Irish),
A Galician treba, like Trasancos, could, depending on its size, have between 80 and 120 brigas, “hillforts”, in the Iron Age. The settlement [a, 177-185; 187-197] projects on its tiny economic territory (of 1.5 km radius, on average) a directura or iurisdictio, “jurisdiction”, cum omnia intus clausis et extrinsecus foris, “with all the content that’s enclosed inside and all that’s open outside”, comprehensive of pastures, woods, hills and watercourses, perfectly bounded per suis terminus et locis antiquis, “by its ancient terms and sites” or de succo mortuorum uel antiquorum, “furrowed with the plough since immemorial time” [a, 204-205; a, 226-296; b, 131; 152]. It is a good, belonging, pro-indiviso, to the dominus, to the head (Irish tánaiste) of a Domo, “Noble House” [precedent of the nobile and of the High Middle Ages sattelite orfidalgo, “nobleman”]. House gassaliana, “vassal”, or cliens, client of the House of the princeps of the treba or toudo [b 263-283, m 333-502].
TREBAD is defined in Ireland (MacCone 1990) as domestic Sovereignty, the possession of “land in peace” by all levels of society. One of its aspects -evoking the atmosphere of celebration and banquet of a hill fort in the Midchúairt, big house with a bench- is the provision of hospitality, represented by the gentle figure of the famous old Irish Briugú “hospitaller”, accommodation provider, with her steaming cauldron.
By way of indiscretion, the divine notion of Briughaid, “lodging”, has very important juridical consequences. There is in Celtic Common Law a generous function of provision of hospitality [a.irl. briugaid, briugas; briugamlacht, “generosity” [-not by chance in Galice, the cradle of the system, with a foot in O Alén, “The Beyond”; literally “Place where they feed us.”-]: an obligation to ‘feed the Lord, his entourage and chivalry’, named in Galice, census, ‘jantar, conducho, collaçom or colheyta (b, 289-295). The Trebad ” The possession in harmony and peace of the Treba, or Toudo, “Túath, in Ireland”, by the sovereign expresses itself in the provission of biatad, “dinner”, by the class of Briugús hosts [sing. briugú (biatach)], ‘whose very high rank and position depends on the provision of hospitality to those who demand it’ McCone . We have often pointed out the briugú, and the briugaid, in the Galician Iron Age round house with a bench [l,113-142], and related the Irish word biatad [Sullivan, cxiii] with our medieval census, conducho, collação or jantar [p,134-143]. Photo A. Pena.
The old Irish Briugú could be born – like all the nobles who are somewhat in Ireland-, in Galiza in a not less famous hostal, the tower of Brigantia.
‘TO GOD OF THE HIGH HOSTING’ DEO BERO BRIEGOCO / BRIEOGO, “BRIUGÚ”, “HOSPEDEIRO”, “ACCOMMODATION PROVIDER”
Sometimes as Breogan / Breogan [Brian], or BERO BREO (Pena & Erias), appearing in 170 arae, intentionally shaped as funerary roman stelae, of those who escaped death in front of the Cies Islands, Insulae Deorum (Vigo).
[One may agree with Vendryes –as MacEoin affirms- that Ir. briugú [hospitaller] […] [and] breogo ‘ruler’, […] both words […] are […] formations based on the old root *bhrghnt-];
VESTIO ALONIECO ,”HOSPEDEIRO ALIMENTADOR”, “BRIUGÚ BIATACH” À luz do epíteto temático aposto nas aras em dat. s. Deo, “ao Deus”, Vestio Alonieco, *Uest-io possív., “hospedeiro, ‘accomodation provider’”, ie *gwest+ sufixo latino –ius; cf., comparativ. o latim hostpit-, de *hosti-pot(i)s, “protetor (E. Losada Badía) dos estrangeiros” > hospes “hospedeiro, invitado, estrangeiro”, o antigo inglês giest; gótico e holandês gast; o antigo eslavo gostĭ, e o antigo frísio jest, [jesthus, hoxe gasthuis, “hospital”] (Pena & Rodal). […] ET PER TRIVIA CEREOLOS INCENDERE [DE CORRECTIONE RUSTICORUM 16] A voz sânscrita gasati, “consumir alimentos”, aludindo ao lugar de provisão de novo liga (Pena) o fogar do Hospedeiro com o ambiente hospitaleiro, um fogar feito com três portas na trivia ou tri ramot, “encruzilhada de três vias”. Assim relacionando o enigmático e descontextualizado epíteto do briugú rámatach Mac Eoin (em Bretha Etgid. CIH i, 255.7.), com um comentário sobre Cóic Conara Fuigill: […] a theach a comrac tri ramot, i, tri rot 7 mu chean fri cach gnuis; Nico eitig nach recht, nicon ursscara fri cach daim, nicon airme necah ciaba [a]mence CIH vi, 2273.39-41. “His house at the junction of three roads, (glos: ie three ways), and welcome to every face; He refuses no person, he excludes no company, he does not reckon it against anyone no matter how often he comes”. E com UB CIH v, 1608.33: TRI RAMUTA LAIS.i tri roid ar armus a tigi ara redend (sic leg.) cach cuigi “He has three roads, that is three roads coming towards his house on which everyone rides to him”. […] “We may see rámut” –diz Mac Eoin (‘Old Irish Briugú…’, 171)- “as composed or rám(a) ‘spade, pala’, and set ‘way, caminho (cf. Santistevo de Setes, Narón e o “Camiño das ánimas”; [Deo Lari] Setandanieco )’”. ‘Clearly’ – diz Gearóid Mac Eoin- ‘one of the conditions of Briugas was that the briugu’shouse be at a cross roads for the convenience of travellers [‘Old Irish Briugú…’, 171]. O ambiente da briugaid dispensada pelo briugú na Terra, corresponde-se no Céu com a hospedaria do Deo Lari Breogodo Além, de Berobriga, celeste Jerusalém dos Celtas, onde nunca esmorece o lume baixo o caldeiro; o recinto de Deus hospitalario Vestio, Breogo, Briugú, que abriga, e recebe, oferecendo comida às benditas animas, com as hospedarias para alimentar ao peregrino no Caminho e o folkore do Ciclo de Valverde”. (Ex A. Pena).
at the Heaven doors of the Tower of Brigantia (Juvainville was right), Bero-Briga, “High City” -a particular Tech nDuínn-, the god of the dead, as Saint Peter, awaits, sometimes with open arms and the epithet ALONIECO, “Hospitaller of Sídh“, in terms of sacred geography.
HILLFORTS / BRIGAS
The brigas/ hillforts /Castros, Galizan habitat Galician habitat -shared throughout Altantic, insular and continental Europe in the Iron Age-, appear in the epigraphic record (1st-5th centuries AD) following a letter C in an inverted position Ɔ which is usually interpreted (Maria Lourdes Albertos 1975:65) as “castrum / castellum“
If this is the meaning of the sign Ɔ-usually made explicit in the Lower Empire by the latin prepositions ex, de, de hoc: Interamnicus ex ƆLoucioelo; Seurra Trans (miniense)ex ƆSerante; etc. – would almost have no importance, by reappearing always after the sign the briga or castelum, “castro”, “hillfort”, in the form of a toponym in ablative, without a preposition, referring to minor-places, that has in Latin, as domo, locative function.
The letter c in an inverted position Ɔappears between the Political Territory (PT) and the castro
PT Ɔ Castro/Briga (Hillfort)
Limicus Ɔ Arcuce
Cilenus Ɔ Berisamo
(Principis)Albionum Ɔ Blaniobrensi
Celtica Supertamarica Ɔ Iureobriga
Sometimes the signƆ does not appear but is replaced by the word castelum in locative:
CLOTIVS CLUTAMI (F) SVSARRV(S) DOMO CVRVNNIACE (CIL III 2016)
DOMO LUCOCADIACVS (CIL III 4227)
In the funerary inscriptions, the expression of origo, oligarchy noble lineage, is indicated as follows:
name + patronymic (father’s name) + name of the Treba + home + data relating to age +location + ownership + dedicator
So in the monumental, roman-galician, paleo-Christian stela preserved in the museum of Lugo, the largest in the Iberian Peninsula, found in Crecente, a few miles from Santa Eulalia de Bóveda:
APANA (name) + AMBOLLI FILIA (patronymic) + CELTICA SUPERTAMARICA (name of the Treba) + […]MIOBRI (home) + ANNORUM XXV (data relating to age) + H[IC] S[ITA] E[ST] (location) + APANUS FRATER FACIENDUM CURAVIT (dedicator).
The whole system of the treba or toudo was based on the activities of the Grád-Túaithe,-as Kim McCone points out (McCone (1990), 86-87;125)- a class of soldiers who owned land called ‘the grades of the state / of secular society’. Grád Túaithe’s activities around the possession of goods and property in a ‘Land in peace’ are called in Ireland trebad, a word of ‘domestic sovereignty’ that should not be lost sight of because it is the name of the Galician territorial political unit, the Treba (Pena AB 1994). The role was first developed by an rí, “king” [á, 174; 285-286], and then by the lords, soon revealing its more apparent than real ‘peaceful character’ in a subordinate gradation [á, 186 ss]; in which apart from the king or the great nobleman, the briugú [the case of the Galician peasant ‘foreiro’, “dependent”] does not develop a military role. The refusal by the “conductores“, receivers of conducta, “land in emphyteusis”, of the above-mentioned obligation of giving biatad, called in Galice, colleita, colação, jantar, subverts the legality, the social order
BRIGA AS DOMO “NOBLE HOUSE”
The Briga or Castro is the domo, “house”, of a dominus “lord” and his dominium comprises the economic territory, houses and fortified installations, cattle, horses and people, children and relatives, freemen and servants.
Land marks, “coiras”, determine – on countless occasions from the Neolithic [de succo mortuorum uel antiquorum] to the present day- jurisdiction of a local lineage over the stable and self-sufficient small population.
Nobiles in return for the transfer, for generations, of land, cómaros “plots”, to the peasants [-each with their dedication, grass; ‘souto’ to brown; ‘naveira’ for turnips, ‘painzeira’ for oats, ‘orxás’ for rye, ‘cortinha’ for cabbages and vegetables, etc .-] receive benefits and income.
The public and private Galizan Celtic Law, rich and subtle, was maintained until the Middle Ages.
Fosterage. In 1107, the Count Raymond of Burgundy, husband of the Infanta Urraca, about to die, arranged for his son, the Infante Afonso Raimúndez (born in Caldas, Kingdom of Galicia, on March 1, 1105) to be separated from his mother, Urraca, daughter of King Afonso VI, and trusted in the fosterage or guardianship of the child. Count of Trava Don Pedro Froilaz, Princeps and Imperante of the “Terra de Trasancos” and head or Tanaiste, of the most powerful noble group of Galicia: the clan of Trasancos “Petriz” or “Froilaz”. Shortly afterward, King Afonso VI summoned all the Galician nobles to León, before dying. (1109), demanding an oath of allegiance to his grandson the infant Afonso Raimúndez. The king demanded from his tutor, the Count of Trava Don Pedro Froilaz a special oath: if Doña Urraca, the mother of Infante Alfonso Raimúndez, were to marry again, Don Pedro would appoint him king of Galiza. Once the oath was taken, Don Pedro Froilaz took the infant in his arms and, abandoning the meeting, rode to the Land of Trasancos, at the border of the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, its heritage territories, considered by the geographical position the “Extreme Parts Gallaeciae”. There, Don Pedro Froilaz placed the child in the hands of his wife, Countess Major Guntroda, and his sister Munia Froiláz, who had lost a young son drowned in the sea of the Xoiva. And so, in the Extreme Parts of Gallaeciae, Count Don Pedro raised the infant as one of his sons and strengthened his spirit with the then ‘noble exercise’ of hunting. In 1109 when the mother of the infant Doña Urraca married the king Afonso I of Aragon, Don Pedro proclaimed Afonso Raimúndez King of Galicia. Shortly after Gelmirez in the most solemn enthronement ceremony celebrated in the cathedral of Santiago, crowned in 1111, to Afonso Raimúndez as king of Galiza. The House of Burgundy did not forget this favor, and later, Guido of Burgundy, Pope Callixtus II established the Holy Year Compostelano.
the adoption (fosterage);
*Iku-rí(g)o. General celtogalaico. O Maior inter Comites de Galiza, D. Pedro Froilaz e o tánaiste *Iku-rí(g)o. Celtic-Galician general. The “Major Inter Comites” of Galicia, D. Pedro Froilaz, is the “head of the family [Irish tánaiste] Petriz [,26]. The Count Mayor of Galicia directs a holding company of Political Territories and clan properties jointly exploited -like Irish Fintiú-, [b, 130-234], The same Political Territories – Trebas o Toudos, Terras “Túatha”, “Lands”, which the Romans will call Ciuitates/Populi-, secularly agglutinated in prosapia by inheritance or couple. “Lands” exploded in a pro undivided regime, receiving to each member his share -quinhão ou quota-parte-, [b, 153-155]. ; in the case of the Land of Trasancos, by the House (Irish fine, lineage) Prolix Petriz [b, 53-200], headed by the Count of Trava, Dom Pedro Froilaz [the ‘major inter comites de Gallaecia‘, “The greatest among the counts of Galice”; a major comitum similar to an Irish Rí Ruirech, and by his brothers; his son, Fernando Péres, Count of Trastámara; and the successive “heads of the clan” [Tánaistí] -, until the death, sine semine, “seedless” in 1261 of their last direct member of the clan Petriz: Dom Rodrigo Gómez , Princeps Gallaeciae and count of the Counties, Mór Túatha [,21 ss] of Montenegro, Monterroso, Limia and Sarria. Rodrigo Gómez was the last Major Comite (Irish Rí Ruirech) . The Princeps Provincia Gallaeciae or Major Count of the Kingdom is like a Rí Cóicid, “King of Province” of Ireland [being Provincia, “Province” a synonym of the Kingdom, Provincia Gallaecia is synonym for “Kingdom of Galicia”] [b, 54-234] ; [p, 152-168]. Second in the kingdom in the hierarchy, possesor of multiple trebas the Princeps Gallaeciae [as the Irish Rí Cóicid or Rí Ruirech – showing the Galician institutions affinity with the Irish ones of Críth Gablag-, only has on top the Rex in Gallaetia, the King of Galicia; The Princeps or Maior Comite Gallaeciae is only vassal [and also a tutor in the fosterage of the infants] of the Ard Rí, “High King”, The Emperor of Galice” – Alfonso Raimúndez [á, 431], Fernando II, Alfonso VIII (IX de Leão) [á, 432], etc., being Galice an Empire with various Kingdoms, León, Asturias, Castilla, etc., often administered – under the authority of the father – by the sons of the emperor [á, 415-433].”
the familiar Tanistry, etc.
In all these aspects it presents clear conjunction with the law of pre-Norman Ireland.
EFFECT OF THE ROMAN CONQUEST ON THE GALICIAN CELTIC JURISDICTIONAL SYSTEM
VETERE AC IAM PRIDEM RECEPTA POPULI ROMANI CONSUETUDINE (Tácito)
VVAA [ ex A. Pena & J. Evans] By chance, it happens that the Prutenn+a+i+cos > Prutencos of the Terra de Pruços could be both Britishand Prussian at the same time. Por Casual Casualidade, Os Prutencos, da Terra de Pruços poderíannos resultar tanto Británicos, como Prusianos. Posibl. *Prutenn-a+i+cos> psblm. Pritanni-ecos [psblm. Britannicos; psblm. Prutencos > Pruteni, Prutenos [Prusianos, Prusios] > Pruzos –; O posíbel berce galaico [cf. Sykes] dos Prutanni– o Británnicos: a galaica Treba ou Toudo, hoxe Arciprestazgo, de Pruzos [Prutencos], comprende as seguintes parroquias, de cuxos celtas nomes o caro Sim Willians non podería acordarse: Santiago de ADRAGONTE, Concello Paderne; San Tirso de AMBROA, Concello de Irixoa; San Martiño de ANDRADE, Concello de Pontedeume; San Paio de ARANGA, parroquia matriz, Concello de Aranga; Santo Tomei de BEMANTES, parroquia matriz. Concello de Miño; Santiago de BOEBRE, Concello de Pontedeume; San Xoan de CALLOBRE, parroquia matriz, Concello de Miño; San Pedro de CAMBÁS, parroquia matriz, Concello de Aranga; San Xulián de CARANTOÑA, Concello de Miño; Santa Maria de CASTRO, parroquia matriz, Concello de Miño -co santuario da Inmaculada en BAÑOBRE-; Santa Maria de CENTROÑA, parroquia matriz, concello de Pontedeume; San Mariño de CHURÍO, Santa María de DOROÑA, Concello de Vilarmaior; San Pedro de GRANDAL, parroquia aneja a Doroña, Concello de Vilarmaior; San Cristovo de GÜIMIL, Concello de Vilarmaior; San Lourenzo de IRIXOA, Concello de Irixoa; Divino Salvador de CORUXOU, Concello de Irixoa; Santa Maria de DOROÑA, parroquia matriz, Concello de Vilarmaior; Divino Salvador de LEIRO, parroquia matriz, Concello de Miño; Santa María de MÁNTARAS, parroquia matriz, Concello de Irixoa; Santa Maria de MIÑO, parroquia matriz, Concello de Miño. San Fiz de MONFERO, parroquia matriz, concello de Monfero; Santa Xuliana de MONFERO, Concello de Monfero; San Cosme de NOGUEIROSA, parroquia matriz, Concello de Pontedeume; Santa María de OMBRE, parroquia matriz, Concello de Pontedeume; San Xoán de PADERNE, parroquia matriz, Concello de Paderne, San Pedro de PERBES, parroquia matriz, Concello de Miño; Santiago de PONTEDEUME, parroquia matriz, Concello de Pontedeume; San Xurxo de QUEIXEIRO, parroquia matriz, Concello de Monfero; Santa Maria de SOUTO, parroquia Matriz, Concello de Paderne; Santa Mariña de TABOADA, parroquia matriz, Concello de Monfero; San Xurxo de TORRES, Concello de Vilarmaior; Santa María de VERÍNS, parroquia matriz, Concello de Irixoa; San Xulián de VIGO, Concello de Paderne; Santa Mariña de VILACHÁ, parroquia matriz, Concello de Monfero; Santiago de VILAMATEO, Concello de Vilarmaior; San Xoan de VILAMOUREL, Concello de Paderne; San Xoan de VILANOVA, Concello de Miño; San Pedro do VILAR, parroquia matriz, Concello de Pontedeume [Santuario de San Miguel de Breamo]; San Pedro de VILARMAIOR, Concello de Vilarmaior; Divino Salvador de VILOUZÁS, parroquia matriz, Concello de Paderne, Santa Baia de VIÑA, parroquia matriz, Concello de Irixoa; San Pantaleón dás VIÑAS, parroquia Matriz, Concello de Paderne.
Ireland, not conquered by Rome, maintained its institutions without interference until the adoption of Christianity in the sixth century; or until the Norman invasion (800,1169); if not already until the conquest by the Tudor (S. XVI).
Irlanda não conquistada por Roma, manteve suas instituições sem interferencias até a adopção do cristianismo no século VI; ou até a invasão normanda (800,1169); senão já até a conquista pelos Tudor (S. XVI).
The Welsh kings and their clients, the Bonheddigion, ruled the country as family fathers [Hubert, 466]. Divided as Ireland into political units, four kingdoms subdivided in Political Territories or Cantref [i][occupied by clans or nobiliary houses defined by strong parental ties and agnaticians. According to HUBERT [,441] this system was able, apparently, to work without major problems in Wales until the 14th century.
Os reis galeses com a sua clientela, os bonheddigion governavam como pais de família o país [Hubert, 466]. Dividido igual que Irlanda em unidades políticas, quatro reinos subdivididos em Territórios Políticos ou Cantref [i]ocupados por clãs ou casas nobiliares definidos por fortes laços parentais e agnaticios. Segundo HUBERT [,441] este sistema seguíu ao que parece funcionando sem grandes tropezos no país de Gales até o século XIV.
Mas na Gallaecia, Roma, seguindo seu conhecido costume de aproveitar a organização pré-existente, integrou nosso sistema Celta, cheio de subtilezas, em seu direito [a, 131-150 (1991) = á, 303-327 ]
Converteu o sagrado lugar forum/oenach/conventus, cada efémera capital estacional das reuniões interterritoriais da Gallaecia, [Imperio conformado por três […] confederações, a cada uma de doze (ou mais) grupos de quatro trebas (mór tuatha) chamadoscomitatos] em três estáveis cidades: Bracara, Lucus e Asturica.
Famosa tabula hospitalis de Folgoso do Courel [Museu de Lugo] do ano 28 a.C. O sistema de vincular á derbfine era usado pelos galaicos no seu tráfico jurídico privado.
Pasando por conquista todas as trebas e toudos a engrosar o ager publicus, eliminou todo vestígio político de unidades superiores -o mór túath, ‘toudo mór’, comprensivo dumas quatro trebas por meio-termo que depois se chamou condado- [n, 103-121], e devolveu as trebas ou toudos em precário aos que as tinham dantes convertendo ao príncipe e ao durvede em legati, homens livres dependentes [fluidir] vassalos de Roma [á, 186-203] . Dito com mais propriedade, Roma não devolveu, aforou as Terras aos senhores vinculadas pelas três vozes da derbfine celta herdando a totalidade o filho sobrevivente da cada transmissão [p, 101-130] Cf. Pena Graña http://www.celtiberia.net/articulo.asp?id=2008
O BERÇO DO FORO GALEGO
Em Galiza como em Irlanda concediam os príncipes conducta, terras, aos servidores ou vassalos [b 24-34] como ilustra a epígrafe de Remeseiros [p, 47-50]. Roma restaurou as trebas e os senhorios familiares, e dentro das trebas restaurou [p, 37-56] nos castros aos nemitos galaicos com condições. Cedeu-lhos por três vozes. Dito de outro modo, devolveu-lhes as trebas ou toudos da prosapia literalmente “aforadas”[p 103-116] [p, 103-116]. e os antigos proprietários passarão de modo técnico durante varios séculos a condutores do que lhes era propio, a tenedores [em Irlanda fluidir] dum ius in aliena re, levadores da fazenda perdida, agora conducta, por três vozes e ‘ao postremeyro’ [b, 27-314].
Obrigados a perdê-la e a retomá-la, mos pesimus, como Sísifo uma e outra vez cumprido o prazo legal e transmitir durante três gerações segundo a Celtic Law a situação jurídica a prosapia, como se fossem ‘servos de vínculo herdeditario [em Irlanda senchléite,“de Casa Velha],” Vae victis! [ p, 103-121 ].
Ninguém discute já que por coisas de política exterior usando Roma a consuetam rationem o direito (celta) das autóctones trebas galaicas [á, 185-197] celtoparlantes[ii], parcere subiectis; aqui [o gênio romano foi nisto insuperável] se deixou subsitir o preexistente. Roma não integrou nosso mundo mediante partilha do campo, reorganização, reparcelamento e re-distribuição da propriedade, com uma reforma agrária total, as chamadas, centuriationes -entrando na partilha agora, o que reparte leva a melhor parte, soldados e colonizadores, como em Emerita da Lusitania-. Ninguém discute que as terras de Gallaecia foram devolvidas [iii]aos que já as tinham dantes [a 115-125; 131-150]. Mas com letra pequena.
O Comum Direito Celta confere decorridas três gerações a um beneficiado ou condutor [bó-aire em Irlanda], a plena propriedade de sua conduta, beneficium ou comenda [iv]. O bó-aire decorrido o plazo legal das três vozes, se converte em flath [o rango do locador], adquire pleno direito sobre a propriedade.
Cogidubnus ou Tongidubnus [falecido no ano 83] intitulou-se segundo Cunliffe e Rusell Ard rí, Rex Magnus Britonum “Grande Rey, Imperadordos Britones”; – com independência das lectiones da quinta regra da famosa inscrição RIB 91 atopada em Chichester em 1723[v]-, fora de toda dúvida como Legatus do imperador, segundo refíreo Tácito em Agricola, XIV, 14:
“Algumas cidades”-escreve Tácito ao final do reinado de Dominiciano- “foram dadas [at/tributae, de onde Attrebates cf. Pena…] ao Rei Cogidumno – (quem se manteve até nossos dias como o mais fiel dos aliados)- segundo a já velha e experimentada prática do Povo Romano, de se valer inclusive de seus próprios reis como instrumentos de domínio [Agricola XIV, 14]” [vi].
Finalizadas as guerras cántabras, Octavio Augusto culminou a conquista de Gallaecia, num século dantes de que Agrícola terminasse a conquista de Britania, entrando no ager publicus, as Terras dos nobres galaicos terratenentes (ai. Flaths), e as dos seus vassalos e servos. Sempre há exceção que confirma a regra, como mostra o chamado Edicto de Bembibre [á 189-203]
Castellanos · Paemeiobrigenses · ex ·/ gente · Susarrorum · […] […] eos · universos · im/munitate · perpetua · dono · quosq(ue) / agros · et quibus · finibus · possede/ runt · […] […] / eos · agros · sine · controversia · possi/ dere · iubeo[vii].
A terra segundo a já velha e experimentada pratica do Povo Romano de se valer das próprias instituições dos povos conquistados como instrumento de domínio, retornou de novo aos que a tinham dantes. Mas já não era o mesmo, volta de outra maneira. Augusto, bem asesorado por seu corpo de jurisperitos, retornou essas terras agora do ager publicus, aforadas (para que se entenda) por três vozes (da derbfine celta).
Um contrato sinalagmático fundamentado na Bona Fides [‘patronussi clienti fraudem fecerit, sacer esto’, e vice versa] obrigando a ambas as partes patronus, e clientes, nun tenor. Decorridas as três vozes precisava-se o renovo condicionado a fides patroni [hospitium vetustom antiquon renouauerunt]. Assim usando do próprio direito celta o Império, se assegurou o controle e fidelidade da nutrida clientela galaica.
Analisemos mostrando as bases ‘do tráfico jurídico entre os romanos e os autóctonos galaicos celtoparlantes -lhes remetendo a meus pormenorizados análises do denso marco jurisdiccional e institucional dos hospitia [á, 270-277; p, 103-130] -como mostra um Hospitium que aparece numa tabula hospitalis ou placa de bronze encontrada num lugar de Lugo:
C. Caesare Aug. f.L.Aemilio.Paullo.cos / ex gente.Asturum. conventus Arae. / Auguste / ciuitas Lougeiorum. hospitium.fecit.cum / C.Asinio.Gallo. [1ª voz] libereis posterisque.eius / [2ª voz] eumque.liberos. posterosque.eius. [3ª voz] sive.libe/reis.postereisque.suis. patronum.cooptarunt / isque.eos. in
[i] Parelhos semántica e institucionalmente as Trebas Can / Tref = Tre = Trifu = Treba = Teuta = Tuath= Touto =Toudo= Thaurp= Tribu; Con / Trebia, Con / Tributi e dicir Trebas xunguidas vontariamente [fonte aos atribuidos por conquista, at/tributi = a/trebates]. Os galeses tomaram da casa, (Trebad no esquema de soberania doméstica) os diversos termos com os que se desiña a propriedade territorial, dotando a cada pessoa livre da família que chega à idade adulta com a trev de terra. [í, 115-117]
[ii] <<Dentro da estructura clientelar desta soberania doméstica, vinculam-se verticalmente com um “rei de reis”, com um ard-rí, ao modo de uma colmea nas mãos de um apicultor, tanto o túath ou território político como a função soberana do próprio rí-tuath. Neste contexto, devemos enquadrar no NW peninsular, na Gallaecia, os hospitia interterritoriais, uns nós dados provavelmente numa asamblea estacional, ora entre duas trebas, ora entre trebas e particulares, ora entre as trebas e o Império, tais como os acordos pactuados por Iria com o Regnum Suevorum ou os firmados entre senhores de comissa ou territoria: os comites seu imperantes, com o chamado Ovetense Regnum. Mas esta instituição não foi uma exclusividade da Gallaecia, pois as pequenas peças em bronze que tão plasticamente mostram com uma aperta de mãos o aspecto vasalático, constituintes no N/NE peninsular do repertório composto pelas tesserae hospitalis celtibéricas, acoplam perfeitamente com um mais amplo encadeamento territorial atlântico de dependências verticais similar ao nosso. Mediante este tipo de vencellos um TP, ou um particular, supeditabase a outro. Os in fidem acceptos por um princeps, ou pelo seu Território Político, convertiam-se em dependente da Treba receptora, sendo, segundo o penso, quizáis este o sentido da voz celtibérica com / trebia e à latina com / tributi. Como contrapartida de verdadeiras contraprestazóns, ajuda militar ou o pagamento dum censo recebiam-se terras (previamente donadas e protecção)>>.
[iii] Como o mostra o famoso Edicto do Bierzo, ou de Bembibre, que estudei em o ano 2000 num capítulo de minha tese de licenciatura, deixada para pública consulta na Secretaria do departamento de História I da Universidade de Santiago.
[iv] Obrigados a pagar ao locador em a cada transmição a loitosa dos cavaleyros. “Originariamente recebia-a o senhor pela perda em todos os eidos -não só económicos- que lhe supunha ter que prescindir não só pela morte como é o caso que ilustro- dum vassalo ou infanção ao que cedesse terras. Esta compensação seria dada pelos familiares do beneficiado depois da morte sem sucessão [ou depois do abandono do bem pelo beneficiado], obrigados a devolver em seu prístino estado os bens cedidos pelo senhor. Este sentido vemo-lo claramente na carta de Balóm de 14 de junho de 1138 de Guntroda Ferveiz: ‘In Dei nomine, ego Guntrode Ferueiz, una pariter cum filio meo Ferueo et filia mea Guntrode Pelaiz in domino Deo eternam amen. Placuit nobis adque conuenit nullis quoquegentis imperio nec suadenti articulo, set propia nobis fuit uoluntas, ut faceremus kartula de ipsa hereditate de Baloni a tibi filio meo Froila Pelagii pro ipso tuo caballo que mihi dedisti que ego dedi a Uermuu Petriz et pectauit illum ad ille Ueremudus Petriz pro intentione de ipso meo filio prenominato Ero Pelaiz qui tenuit ille Ero sua terra de Uermuu Petriz et dimisit ille Ero illa terra sine gratude Uermuu Petriz, et proinde pecit ille Uermuu illa hereditate ad illa Guntrode pro pignora, qui si illa potuisset habere suo filio, quod redisset ratione de illa terra, et illa non potuit illum habere per nullum ingenium et proinde do ego, Guntrode, ipso kauallo de meo filio Froila, et sacco ipsa hereditate de Uermuu Petriz. (T. II Sobrado, f. 127r Ex P. de Loscertales)’”.
[v] Possivelmente a lectio de Bogaers (1979) é a correta […] (4) [EX]·AVCTORITAT[E·TI]·CLAVD· /(5) [CO]GIDVBNI·R[EG·MA]GNI·BRIT, [Monumento feito] por ordem de Tiberio Claudio Cogidubno [ou Tongidubno], grande rei dos Britanos.
[vi]Quaedam civitates Cogidumno regi donatae (is ad nostram usque memoriam fidissimus mansit), vetere ac iam pridem recepta populi Romani consuetudine, ut haberet instrumenta servitutis et reges. Tácito. Agricola XIV, 14.
[vii] Edicto de Bembibre por mim estudado em minha tese de licenciatura, terminada o dia 1º de fevereiro, dia de Santa Brígida, de 2001, depositada trala súa leitura na biblioteca dá USC; Um ano despois, em 2002, calcando os nosos passos nun asombroso exercicio de convergencia científica -habitual nos presentes tempos de indulgência xeral- o professor, hoxe catedrático da USC, Marco Virgilio García Quintela confirmou em tropeçada TAPA, a cada um dos meus asertos e contidos da mencionada tese de licenciatura. Para ele meu agradecimiento.
From the point of view of institutions, these tribes share much more than common names such as Brigantini, Nemetati, Belgae, Contrebiae/Contributi, Attributi, etc. They share (Pena Graña 2004) a twofold sovereignty, a prince or king of the tribe, and a druid or religious leader
a feudal (feudal-vassal) system, resting, as in the Middle Ages on three ordines, BELLATORESreges, principes, and the subordinate noble rank clientes, ambactos, nobiles/equites, magistri etc.,; ORATORES, durvedes –druids, the real power over tribal disputes, deliberate and decide on all issues and conflicts-, ovates and filid; LABORATORES, [plebes, vulgi,servii ] “the commonality– says Caesar (BG vi- 13) -is held almost in the condition of slaves, and dares to undertake nothing of itself, and is admitted to no deliberation” .
The ‘Celtic fringe’ is not limited to music, to language, to religion, to art and crafts…
The ‘Celtic fringe’ is not limited to music, to language, to religion, to art and crafts…it is basically a rigid theocratic and jurisdictional system, a pyramidal complex regulating rights and obligations in the Toudo or Treba. A theocracy, with a common universal law and institutions, guarded, applied, developed and interpreted by the clergy (durvedes).
ORATORES/CELTIC CHURCH. DRUIDS/DURVEDES
Celtic Europe not only shares the names of the tribes and the gods. It also shares an identical political constitution as a result of receiving younger sons of noble houses of Celtic Europe, in centralized international learning centers, a common rigid education controlled by the Celtic Church.
The clergy, extracted from the noble younger sons, from all-Celtic tribes of Europe [BG VI, 13. 4 ad hos magnus adulescentium numerus disciplinae causa concurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore]; educated in international seminars elected by the excellence of teaching and teachers – as today in Oxford or in Sorbonne -, [CAESAR BG VI, 13]
All the effective political power is in the hands of the vertically organized clergy, held by Druids (BG VI), forming a true universal church able to hold ecumenical councils to elect a visible and infallible head. This is the forerunner, but with far more power, of the Catholic Church. An international clergy, interconnected – as tolerable, was the Abbey of Cluny with the rest of the monasteries of the order in the twelfth century -, using the Greek alphabet [in reliquis fere rebus, publicis privatisque rationibus Graecis litteris utantur]. Ordained priests when returning home would apply, with precision, in their countries, the Common Law learned at school .
TEXTO DE DIAPOSITIVA
the mystical union between the king and the tribe
They are responsible to represent, in conspectu populi, the mystical union between the king and the tribe, symbolized by the sacrifice of a white mare, to cook in a pot their meat and blood, and then distribute communion to all the grades of the society.
Responsible for consecrating and enthroning them in the stone altar of the tribe [CROUGIN TOUDADIGO; TREBO PALA; TOUDO PALA, the Galizan Lía Fail, or stone of Scone.
They oversee circumambulatio, the inauguration ceremony of the King, around the border of the tribe.
And with the power to consecrate kings, they have the power to interdict, excommunicate, or deprive them of their kingdoms.
Druids also have the control of the jurisdictional sphere – including public law and private law; the control of metrology –weights, measures, calendar-, of technology, of religion, etc.
Drawing by Carlos Alfonzo for O Val, A Súa Historia
Comentario de diapositiva
The Celts from the insular and continental Atlantic Europe, far from the faithful, above the local cults, left us a common pantheon and a common theology. Basically –together with the Matres-, a Trinitarian Monotheistic religion embodied the three steps of the sun (Sky, Sea, Other World) in the orbe tripartito.
The sun orbits the earth in three steps. In the first step it takes possession of the sky, in the second one it takes possession of the sea, and in the third one it takes possession of the earth, the underworld. It is conceived as a child and a teenager in the first step [with the related epithets sometimes shared in roman interpretatio by the same deities, Mars Apollo, as it happens with Lug, Lugh, Lugos, Leud, Lheu “Shining God,” Mabon “Divine Youth”, Grannos “bright as scarlet” Belenos “Whitest”, “Luster”, “Gorgeous”, Cocidius “Warrior” or, more likely, “Red”, Segos “Victorious,” Brian “Strong” , Bandua “Tie with the rope”, and so on] as a psychopomp, guide of souls, in the second step [Vestius “host of the Beyond”, Oghmios “The Way”, Setanta “The Wanderer”; and as dying God and a judge of the afterlife in the third.
MATRES [MATRES GALLAICIS]
YOUNG VIRGIN of extraordinary beauty, the embodiment of the State, choose the king to rule the Treba
– YOUNG VIRGIN of extraordinary beauty, the embodiment of the State, choose the king to rule the Treba or Toudo after undergoing a test, marries him, grows old with him, and on the death of the king becomes young again, and finds another husband, another king, to rule the land.
VIRGIN, MOTHER OF THE DYING GOD ESUS
-VIRGIN, MOTHER OF THE DYING GOD ESUSrepresenting the fruits and emergence of summer
OLD WOMAN Builder of the landscape and the megalithic monuments
– OLD WOMAN ‘Cailleach’ Builder of the landscape and the megalithic monuments.
The millenary and complex theological corpus, sinking its roots in the Neolithic and beyond, imperceptibly accommodates in the classical world, ‘pars pro toto’ A. Pena & J. Evans
The long March of the Celts to insular and continental Europe, left us the whole nation of cohesive clergy, owner of real power -as Caesar fears, because the king commands the men, the Druid in the consciences of men- possessor of the law, applying the right to judge and impose penalties.
In Plate I, on a map of Patrice Brun (1995) we see the autonomous political Celtic territories of Gaul reconstructed following the boundaries of the medieval dioceses (rural bishoprics). In Plate II (PENA GRAÑA 1994), on a similar map, some princedoms or trebas/toudos, autonomous political Celtic territories from the Galizan Atlantic coast can be seen. All of them reconstructed (PENA GRAÑA 1991) following the boundaries of the medieval “parrochiae, dioceses or sedes,“rural bishoprics” attached to Iria both in the Concilium Bracarense secundum in era DCX ( 572 AD) and in the Divisio Theodemiri, made in Lucense Concilium (569 AD)
The sudden appearance of rural dioceses, without urban life, overlaid on the Celtic political territory of pre-Roman Iron Age, reveals the mass conversion of the Galizan-Roman clergy to Christianity around the year 314 -when the Diocese of Beteka, unknown Treba, Toudo, Populus of Civitas of Gallaecia, sent a priest to Gaul, to represent their episcopus, “bishop” at the Council of Arles-.
So, the instantly established Galizan Christian Celtic church, ruled over the princedoms, trebas, toudos, ciuitates, populi. And in a similar way the Irish Celtic church shares common features with the Galizan Church, when, 250 years later, after the conversion of Ard-ri, its Celtic vassals and clergy, installed on túatha, “political territories” became Christians.
Si en las Gallaeciae, Lucense, Bracarense y Asturica, la Divisio Theodemiri significa la supresión del episcopado, su substitución por sedes abbatiles –coincidentes con las trebas o toudos- y la aparición poco después del arciprestazgo medieval, en Irlanda tenderá a su vez a desaparecer el episcopado rural por los mismos motivos, esto es: la multiplicidad de los túatha circunscritos, como en Galicia, en diócesis demasiado exiguas y sin vida urbana, convierten a los obispados en centros monásticos (Armag, Derri, Kildare, etc) y a las sedes en sedes “abbatiles”. Asi pasaron en el área cultural atlántica los viejos durvedes o druidas, flamines y “episcopi” de ovates a abbates, cambiando todo para seguir igual aunque el presente era ya cristiano, creándose un cristianismo muy particular, integrador del pasado pagano. Así nace en Galicia el llamado Priscilianismo, donde es una Virgen cierta Luz que produce la lluvia (OROSIO), donde Santa Ana se gesta en el interior de una pierna de su padre y donde San Xiao do Trebo, tras matar a sus padres cuando regresa de una cacería al creerse engañado por su fiel esposa, con la que los encuentra reposando de noche en un mismo lecho, se hace santo. Menos madrugador el pais de Gales se cristianizaria, con los mismos presupuestos en el siglo V.
 Our Political Territory was named in Galician and Lusitanian language TREBA. The voice, from the domestic sovereignty, means “House,” Shire”,” Political Territory “. Pliny mentions the Arroni or Arrotrebae, this is Arros or County Arrós. And the voice Treba is mentioned twice -among the epithets undoubtedly intensify the role of Matres – in an inscription found in Cabeço das Fraguas, Portugal, written in late Vulgar Latin, infiltrated with the substrate of the Lusitanian-Galician language. Towards the end of the registration TREBARUNE [psb. determinant “of the Treb” + determinated “Moon” (r / l) “Luna”, and, again REVE TR[EBARUNA?] – psb. Old Irish Re, Reve “moon”- ], and to the beginning of the inscription in TREBO-PALA, referring no doubt this time to an “altar stone”, meaning the ancient voice pala “stone”, (Old Irish fail) of the tribe in terms of sacred geography. The altar stone also appears as TOUDO-PALA (* TEWTO-PALA, “Túatha Fáil” ) or CROUGIN-TOUDADIGO [CROUGIN/Cruachan “Stone altar” TOUDADIGO (as Teutates), “of the túath”]. In the epigraphic record of the Northwest’s voice also TREB [A] appears in Gallaecia Bracarense in a cruciform landmark terminalis pointing border of Obili [Anci?]: TERM [MINVS] TREB [AE] OBILI [ANCORUM? [Sanfins; Valpaços, Chaves (Portugal)]
 Hubert assinala que Gales conheceu a palavra TREBA para o Teritorio político, dantes de que quatro reinos se repartissem o país subdividido em distritos chamados Can/tref. As vozes CONTREBIA (Celtiberia) e CONTRIBUTI (Interim Oscenses et Calagurritani qui erant cum oscensibus contributi –Caesar BC 1, 60-), expressam confederación; as vozes ATREBATES e ATTRIBUTI a anexión por conquista de umas tribos a outra à que pagam tributo censum (lat. AT/TRIBUERE) (insulae Rhodis attributae = “ilhas anexadas a Rodas”)
 In 2004 Trinity College Dublin published genetic research. Being “National Identity” and Celtic Legacy, consubstantial concepts, in the language, history, legends and literature of Ireland, the Irish Government, to document, accorded to common opinion, the arrival of the Celts from Central Europe in the V century BC, funded a study led by Dan Bradley and Brian McEvoy.
But comparing DNA samples from 200 volunteers from various parts of Ireland with a genetic database of 8500 individuals across Europe, Bradley and McEvoy, found something different, confirming McEvoy: “The primary genetic legacy of Ireland, seems to have come from people from Spain and Portugal after the last ice age”, in fact a genetic legacy of Mesolithic and Neolithic of Gallaecia and the Atlantic coast of Iberia. “We have” – McEvoy said-, “a much older genetic legacy”, which could according mistakenly they thought not be Celtic.
However the study of TCD, of Bradley and McEvoy, in fact redefined the concept of Celtica, when combined in a map of Europe Genetic profiles [haplotipe R1b (Y-DNA)] noted in the Atlantic Cultural Area corresponding to Algarve, Gallaecia, Cantabria, Basque Country, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Britain.
 Regnante rege A[defonso] in Legione et in Asturiis et in Gallecia. Gundissalvo Nunit tenente Monte Roso et medio de Transtamar. Petro Suarii archiepiscopo […] Petrus ARteiru rex de Milide. an 1205, Agosto 16 . T. II Sobrado dos Monxes. Fol 62 vto. In Pilar de Loscertales de Valdeavellano.
11 Disciplina in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam translata esse existimatur ] Brought over twenty years in many fields [BG 14. 2 Tantis excitati praemiis et sua sponte multi in disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus propinquisque mittuntur. […] Itaque annos nonnulli vicenos in disciplina permanent] including public and private law.
“For they determine respecting almost all controversies, public and private; and if any crime has been perpetrated, if murder has been committed, if there be any dispute about an inheritance, if any about boundaries, these same persons decide it; they decree rewards and punishments (CAESAR BG VI, 13 .5)
 VI 13. 8 His autem omnibus druidibus praeest unus, qui summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. 9 Hoc mortuo aut si qui ex reliquis excellit dignitate succedit, aut, si sunt plures pares, suffragio druidum, nonnumquam etiam armis de principatu contendunt. 10 hi certo anni tempore in finibus Carnutum, quae regio totius Galliae media habetur, considunt in loco consecrato. Huc omnes undique, qui controversias habent, conveniunt eorumque decretis iudiciisque parent.
8 Over all these Druids one presides, who possesses supreme authority among them. 9 Upon his death, if any individual among the rest is pre-eminent in dignity, he succeeds; but, if there are many equal, the election is made by the suffrages of the Druids; sometimes they even contend for the presidency with arms. 10These assemble at a fixed period of the year in a consecrated place in the territories of the Carnutes, which is reckoned the central region of the whole of Gaul. Hither all, who have disputes, assemble from every part, and submit to their decrees and determinations
 “if any one, either in a private or public capacity, has not submitted to their decision, they interdict him from the sacrifices. This among them is the most heavy punishment. Those who have been thus interdicted are esteemed in the number of the impious and the criminal: all shun them, and avoid their society and conversation, lest they receive some evil from their contact; nor is justice administered to them when seeking it, nor is any dignity bestowed on them”. -And we fail to remember the status of the Emperor Henry IV before Pope Gregory VII at Canossa –
IN PROGRESS [AD CONTINUANDUM]
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André Pena, funcionario de carreira historiador, arqueólogo e arquiveiro do Concello de Narón, é doutor en arqueoloxía e historia antiga e decano do Instituto Galego de Estudos Celtas IGEC. Especializado no estudo das Relixións da Antigüidade; da Relixión Celta e a súa influencia no presente Cristián; da Mitología comparada; das Institucións Celtas e Indoeuropeas; dos Santuarios Celtas; da Orixe pagana e o presente cristián do Camiño de Santiago e de San Andrés e da Historia Antiga, Medieval e Moderna de Galiza.